N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Parnassius (Parnassius) jacquemontii Boisduval, 1836

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Parnassius jacquemontii Boisduval, 1836: 400
Type locality: Himalaya
Type: in coll. Boisduval, now MNHN, Paris

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
The following list has been compiled by Waldeck (2007):

Parnassius jacquemonti subsp. actinoboloides Bang-Haas, 1928
Parnassius jacquemonti var. baroghila Tytler, 1926
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. buddha Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. chilieni Kocman, 1996
Parnassius jacquemontii var. cyrnus Fruhstorfer, 1906
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. davidneelae Kocman, 1999
Parnassius jacquemonti subsp. diana Bryk, 1934
Parnassius jacquemonti var. hunzaica Tytler, 1926
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. jupiterius Bang-Haas, 1933
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. kangraensis Bryk & Eisner, 1932
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. kohibabaensis Eisner & Sakai, 1975
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. linneae Bryk, 1943
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. mercurius Grum-Grshimailo, 1891
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. mohammad Eisner & Naumann, 1980
Parnassius jacquemontii forma novarae Bryk & Eisner, 1937
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. nuksanica Kotzsch, 1936
Parnassius jacquemonti subsp. pamira Bang-Haas, 1927
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. pandita Kocman, 1999
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. paulusi Schulte, 1992
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. peter Bryk & Eisner, 1935
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. rubicundus Stichel, 1906
Parnassius jacquemontii var. shandura Tytler, 1926
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. tibetanus Rühl, 1892
Parnassius jacquemontii var. unirubromaculata Bryk, 1943
Parnassius jacquemontii subsp. variabilis Stichel, 1906

Keeled Apollo


P. jacquemontii gartokensis Paralectotype from the Ulster Museum P. jacquemontii rubicundus: Pamir P. jacquemontii peter: Tajikistan  
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Nash Robert (creative commons)
Detailed view
Picture from: www.ebay.at: © galijotas
Detailed view
Picture from: www.ebay.at: © galijotas
Detailed view

Description of adults (Bingham 1907): Wingspan: 66 - 80 mm. ". Upperside: pale creamy white; both wings irrorated with diffuse black scales; body, base of the wings and the dorsum of hind wing clothed with long white hairs. Fore wing: the irroration of black scales most dense along the costal margin and at base of cell, more sparse on the disc; the apical two thirds of the cell, a portion beyond the middle of interspace 1, and the bases of interspaces 4, 5, 8 and 9 markedly free of the diffuse black scales; a transverse short bar across the middle of cell, another along the discocellulars, and a diffuse transverse series of postdiscal lunules, black; three or four crimson spots encircled with black arranged as follows: one midway in interspace 1, two, sometimes three, beyond apex of cell in an oblique line from the costa; the terminal margin broadly hyaline, with minute black specks at the apices of the veins; cilia white. Hind wing: base and dorsal margin beneath the white hairs densely and broadly irrorated with black scales, the inner edge of this border irregular, rest of the wing with more diffuse black scaling; five or six black-encircled crimson spots as follows: two, sometimes three, obliquely above the tornus, these or one of them, occasionally white-centred; one in the middle of interspaces 5 and 7 respectively, these are generally centred with white; and one pure crimson spot at the extreme base of the wing; the postdiscal series of black lunules are as on the fore wing, but the lunules are not so well defined and generally separate from one another; finally there is no distinct hyaline border to the wing, but the cream-white scaling extends to the termen; terminal black specks to the veins and white cilia as on the fore wing. Underside: shining, with more or less of a glazed appearance; markings much as on the upperside, but indicated as much by those of the upperside which show through as by actual scaling; in addition on the hind wing there is a subbasal transverse series of four dull crimson spots while the crimson spots beyond are all more or less white-centred. Antennae deep brownish black, rarely with a few white specks on the underside; head, thorax and abdomen beneath the covering of white hairs, black. - . Similar, generally darker with the irroration of black scales more dense; the crimson spots are often larger and more brilliant. Anal pouch after fertilization "ovally scoop-shaped in front, convex beneath," furnished with a sharp high carina posteriorly."

Variability: "The above description is taken from, as nearly typical specimens as I had access to, but P. jaequemonti is an exceedingly unstable form and varies in size, in shade of ground-colour, in the amount and distribution of the black scaling on the wings, and in the number and size of the red or crimson spots, which may or may not be centred with white. These differences are probably partially seasonal." (Bingham 1907).


Following Häuser et al. (2005) and Waldeck (2007), the species is distributed in Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, northern India and China (Tibet, Sinkiang, Kansu and Szechwan). Bingham (1907) records a vertical distribution from 11000 - 13000 feet (= 3300 - 3900 m a.s.l.).

Stages in development:

Larva: The larva feeds on Rhodiola, Sedum and Orostachys species (Waldeck 2007).

Worth knowing:


Bingham, C. T. 1907. Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Butterflies - Vol. II. Taylor & Francis, London, 480 pp., 20 pl.
Boisduval, J. A. Histoire naturelle des insectes; spécies général des lépidoptères 1, 690 pp.
Häuser, C. L., J. Holstein & A. Steiner 2005. The Global Butterfly Information System. http://www.globis.insects-online.de. Last updated 14.04.2011 [online 15 January 2013].
Waldeck, G. 2007. Parnassius of the world. URL: http://goran.waldeck.se/paindex2.htm [online 1 June 2011].

Publication data:

Kurz Michael: 2011.03.03
Kurz Michael: 2011.06.01
Kurz Michael: 2011.11.03
Kurz Michael: 2012.01.25
Kurz Michael: 2013.01.17
not reviewed