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Parnassius (Driopa) eversmanni Ménétries, 1855

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Parnassius eversmanni Ménétriés, 1855: 73, pl. 1, fig. 2.
Type locality: Russia, Yenisei region, Kansk
Type: Holotype : Russia, Yenisei region, Kansk, probably in coll. ZISP, St. Petersburg

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
Parnassius wosnesenskii Ménétriés, 1855: 74, pl. 1, fig. 3. Type locality: Siberia, Ochotsk. Subjective synonym (principle of first reviewing author) of Parnassius eversmanni eversmanni Ménétriés, 1855.
Parnassius eversmanni septentrionalis Verity, 1911: 319. Type locality: Russia, Viluj and Witim. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius eversmanni eversmanni Ménétriés, 1855.
Parnassius eversmanni magadana Weiss, 1971: 215-216. Type locailty: USSR, Siberia sept. or., Magadansk, Kolimskii Ridge, Kegali River, 1,000m. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius eversmanni eversmanni Ménétriés, 1855.
Parnassius eversmanni polarius Schulte, 1991. Type locality: UdSSR, Tchukotka peninsula, Providenia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius eversmanni eversmanni Ménétriés, 1855.
Parnassius eversmanni altaica Verity, 1911: 319. Type locality: Russia, Altai. Subspecies.
Parnassius eversmanni nom. n. lacinia Hemming, 1934. Unnecessary replacement name for Parnassius eversmanni altaica Verity, 1911.
Parnassius eversmanni lautus Ohya 1988. Type locality: USSR, Suntar Chayata Ridge, Verchoyansk Mts., Yakutia. Subspecies ?.
Parnassius eversmanni sarymsaktyensis Sorimachi, 1999. Type locality: E. Kazakhstan, Upper Sarym-Sakty Riv. 2800-3000m, Sarym-Sakty Mountains. Subspecies ?.
Parnassius eversmanni ukukensis Sorimachi, 1999. Type locality: Russia, Maitobe Mt. 2800m, Ukok Plateau. Subspecies ?.
Parnassius eversmanni litoreus Stichel, 1907. Type locality: Russia, Amur region, Nikolajewsk. Subspecies.
Parnassius eversmanni mikamii Ohya and Fujioka, 1997. Type locality: Russia, Gorniy 1000 m, Khabarovskij kraj. Subspecies ?.
Parnassius eversmanni rubeni Eisner 1971. Type locality: USSR, Autonomous Jewish Territory, Chingan-Mts.. Subspecies ?.
Parnassius eversmanni daisetsuzana Matsumura, 1926: 103. Type locality: Japan, Hokkaido. Subspecies.
Parnassius eversmanni sasai O. Bang-Haas, 1938: 132. Type locality: Corea sept., Prov. Chozu, Mt. Yurienei, Kankyonando, 1500-1900 m. Subspecies.
Parnassius eversmanni nishiyamai Ohya and Fujioka, 1997. China, Nizhne Ulugishi, Djin Range, Da Hinggan Ling, Heilong Jian. Subspecies.
Parnassius felderi Bremer, 1861. Type locality: Russia, Amur region, "im Bureja-Gebirge". Subspecies.
Parnassius eversmanni felderi f. (morpha vernal.) innae Kotshubej, 1929: 190. Type locality: USSR, [Polovina?], Bureja river, Kuldur. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius eversmanni maui Bryk, 1911: 4. Type locality: Type locality: Russia, Sichote Alin. Unavailable in litteris name. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius eversmanni maui Bryk, 1915 generatio I mauoides O. Bang-Haas, 1927. Type locality: Russia, Sichote Alin. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius thor W. H. Edwards, 1881. Type locality: Canada, Yukon territory, Keno Hill. Subspecies.
Parnassius eversmanni meridionalis Eisner, 1978. Type locality: Canada, Pink Mt., B. C., 122°30´ long., 57° lat.. Junior primary homonym of Parnassius apollo meridionalis Pagenstecher, 1909.
Parnassius eversmanni n. nom. pinkensis Gauthier, 1984. Replacement name for Parnassius eversmanni meridionalis Eisner, 1978, which is invalid as a junior primary homonym of Parnassius apollo meridionalis Pagenstecher, 1909. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius eversmani thor H. G. Edwards, 1881.
Parnassius eversmanni vossnesenskii auct: Misspelling.

Eversmann´s Parnassian

Habit:

P. eversmanni septentrionalis : Russia, Yakutia, Aldan, Tommot, 350-380 m, 2009.06, coll. Michael Kurz P. eversmanni septentrionalis , underside: Russia, Yakutia, Aldan, Tommot, 350-380 m, 2009.06, coll. Michael Kurz P. eversmanni felderi : Russia, Amur region P. eversmanni septentrionalis : Russia, Yakutia
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: www.ebay.at: © galijotas
Detailed view
Picture from: www.ebay.at: © galijotas
Detailed view
     
: Mongolia      
Picture from: www.ebay.at: © galijotas
Detailed view
     

Description of adults: Examined: 1 , pictures of 8 , 2 . Wing expanse: 50 mm.

: Head black, with rusty-brown, distant, ventrally black mixed duft of hair-like scales on frons; palpi reddish-beige scaled, with distant long, ventralwards directed, black, partly beige mixed, hair-like scales; eyes semi-globular, dark chestnut-brown; antennae slightly more than 1/3 of forewing length, black; thorax black, dorsally with scarce, only anteriorly denser, hair-like scales; wings on the upperside not completely covered with scales, hyaline, creamy-white to yellow in colouration; forewings with moderately broad grey colouration along outer margin and grey markings: From base to 1/3 of cell length grey; also grey, broad, cross-like spots in middle of cell and at discus; postdiscally an undulate fascia across the whole wing width, from costa distalwards in a bow, posterior slightly inwardly oblique towards inner margin; distad another narrow, undulate fascia parallel to the grey outer margin nearly across the whole wing width, including light lunulae between veins with the grey fascia along outer margin; hindwing broad blackish along inner margin, the blackish colouration tip-like extended towards discus, but not reaching anal angle; proximad to anal angle an elongate black cross-like spot; a small, broad black bordered, crimson, eye-like spot basally to middle of anterior margin; between M1 and M2 a small black spot with some reddish tinge from underside colouration; an interrupted, narrow grey line in bows along outer margin; underside of forewing devoid of any scales, with fatty gloss, hindwing almost completely scaled, although membrane not completely covered with scales; markings similar to upperside, but the two eye-like spots inwardly crimson and white centered; an additional crimson, white centered eye-like spot in middle of blackish inner margin; close to basis further small crimson and light spots of ground colour; legs black with scarce, long beige hair-like scales; abdomen black, with very scarce, hair-like scaling of brownish to whitish-grey colouration, which is shorter but denser on underside.: Similar to , but creamy to yellow ground colour generally paler and more light greyish overshadowed; elongate spot at anal angle of hindwing upperside mostly connected to spot between M1 and M2 and crimson centered with two eye-like spots; other eye-like spots with more pronounced crimson center.

Variability: Besides the described differences between males and females, forms around Parnassius eversmanni felderi Bremer, 1861 are much less yellow in ground colouration then typical forms.

Distribution:

The species is distributed from eastern Kazakhstan throughout Siberia, northern Mongolia, China and Corea to Alaska and northern Canada. Vertically, the species has been found from near sea level in the Russian Far East to 3000 m a.s.l. in eastern Kazakhstan (Kurz & Kurz 2012).

Biology:

 
P. eversmanni daisetsuzana: Japan, central Japan, Kiso P. eversmanni daisetsuzana , egg laying: Japan, central Japan, Kiso Russia, 10 km north of Krasnorechenskii, near Dalniegorsk, 2010.07.25  
Picture from: © Kobayashi M.
Detailed view
Picture from: © Kobayashi M.
Detailed view
Picture from: picasaweb: Jean Michael (creative commons)
Detailed view
 

In south Siberia, the species flies on alpine meadows and mountain tundras. In north-west Yakutia, it occurs in swampy sparse larch forests and along streams (Tuzov et al. 1997). P. eversmanni has furthermore been found on rocky or stony ground with scarce vegetation only, as well as in mountainous tundra areas in North America. The animals are on the wing in one generation from end May till early August. In Alaska, the species has been found nectaring on Petasites sp., in Russia, in the Ussuri region, on probably Solidago sp. (Kurz & Kurz 2012). "The adults fly low and fast over open ground and rocky slopes in protected areas between hills or in stream valleys, where they fly among shrub willows." (Layberry et al. 1998).

Stages in development:

Egg. The eggs are laid on the foodplant or nearby on stones and other material.

Larva. The larva is black with short hairs and yellow to white spots and dashes on each segment. It overwinters first as newly-hatched larva in the chorion. Foodplants are various species of Corydalis, like C. arctica, C. paeonifolia, C. gorodkovi and C. pauciflora (Tuzov et al. 1997, Layberry et al. 1998).

Pupa. The pupa overwinters too.

Diagnosis:

Typical specimens of P. eversmanni are unmistakeable, due to their more or less yellowish ground colour. Otherwise, the species may be recognized by the gray cross fasciae on the forewing upperside and, in males, the more or less reduced red colouration in the eye-like spots on the hindwing upperside.

Worth knowing:

Sources:

Kobayashi, M. 1996-2012. Photo of butterflies at Kiso in Japan. URL: http://www.cnet-kiso.ne.jp/k/koba84/Eindex.htm [online 05 March 2012].
Kurz, M. A. & M. E. Kurz 2000–2012. Naturkundliches Informationssystem. – URL: http://www.nkis.info [online 27 February 2012].
Layberry, R. A., P. W. Hall & J. D. Lafontaine 1998. The Butterflies of Canada. University of Toronto Press. - information available at: http://www.cbif.gc.ca/home_e.php [online 05 March 2012].
Ménétriés, E. 1855-1863. Enumeratio corporum animalium Musei imperialis Academiae scientiarum Petropolitanae : Classis insectorum, ordo lepidopterorum.
Sheljuzhko, L. 1914. Bemerkungen über Parnassius eversmanni Men. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie X (1): 1-6.
Tuzov, V. K., A. L. Dewatkin, L. V. Kabak, V. A. Korolev, V. S. Murzin, G. D. Samodurov, E. A. Tarasov & P. V. Bogdanov 1997. Guide to the Butterflies of Russia and adjacent territories Volume 1. Pensoft, Sofia - Moscow. 1997. Information available at: http://rusinsects.com/p-evers.htm [online 06 March 2012].
Verity, R. 1905-1911. Rhopalocera Palaearctica, iconographie et description des Papillons Diurnes de la région paléarctique. Florence.

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2011.12.06
Kurz Michael: 2012.01.25
Kurz Michael: 2012.03.05
Kurz Michael: 2012.03.06
Kurz Michael: 2012.07.19
Kurz Michael: 2012.07.20
Document reviewed by:
not reviewed: 2012.07.20
Document released by:
Kurz Michael: 2012.07.20

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