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Parnassius (Parnassius) smintheus Doubleday, [1847]

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Parnassius smintheus Doubleday [in Doubleday & Westwood], [1847]: 27, pl. IV*, fig. 4.
Type locality: Rocky Mountains; defined as “vicinity of Rock Lake, [near Jasper] Alberta (53°27´N, 118°16´W)” by J. Shepard (1984), Quaest. Entomol. 20(1): 40-41.
Type: Lectotype : Rocky Mts., Pres. by Earl of Derby, in coll. NHM, London, designated by J. Shepard (1984), Quaest. Entomol. 20(1): 41.

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
The following list is based on Warren et al. (2012):

Parnassius smintheus var. nanus Neumoegen, 1890: 61-62. Type locality: “near Fort Calgarry [sic!]...at Spence´s Bridge, both places being in British Columbia” [Fort Calgary is in Alberta]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus smintheus Doubleday, [1847].
[Parnassius phoebus] manitobaensis Bryk & Eisner, 1935: 55. Type locality: “Manitoba, End-Mountains”; corrected to “End Mountain, Alta.” by McDunnough (1936), Can. Entomol. 68(2): 43; further defined as “End Mountain, near Exsham, Alberta” by Eisner (1957), Zoöl. Meded. 35(8): 96. [Exshaw]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus smintheus Doubleday, [1847].
Parnassius delius var. smintheus forme hermodur ab. nigerrimaVerity, [1907]: 108, pl. 16, fig. 23 . Type locality: “Montagnes Rocheuses de la Colombie Britannique” implied from the legend to plate 16. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
P[arnassius]. delius var. smintheus forme minor Verity, [1907]: pl. 16, fig. 21 . Type locality: “Montagnes Rocheuses de la Colombie Britannique” implied from the legend to plate 16. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius v. smintheus ab. minusculus Bryk, 1912: 58, fig. 4 . Type locality: “Colorado” apparently in error. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius phoebus smintheus form ernestinae Bryk & Eisner, 1935: 51. Type Locality: “Ptarmigan-Paß 135° 20´/ 50° 20´” [Alberta]. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius verity Ehrmann, 1918: 30. Proposed to replace minor Verity, [1907], but unavailable names cannot be replaced (Code Article 1.3.4).
[Parnassius Smintheus var.] Rocky Grum-Grshimailo, 1890: 149 (note 9). Proposed without a description or indication. Nomen nudum.

Parnassius Sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863: 78, no. 1. Type Locality: “Pikes Peak”; corrected to “gold region west of Denver” by F. Brown (1975), Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 101(1): 6; neotype from “Running Creek Field Sta., 6950´, Elbert Co., Colo., T9S R65W, SW 1/4 25" [Colorado]. Subspecies.
Parnassius Hermodur Hy. Edwards,1881: 4. Type Locality: “Southern Colorado”. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863.
Parnassius polus Ehrmann, 1917: 54-55. Type Locality: “Ashcroft, Pidkin [sic!] County, Colorado” [Pitkin County]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863.
Parn[assius]. smintheus v. montanus : 29-30. Type Locality: “Bullion Peak, Colorado” [Park County]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863.
Parnassius phoebus utahensis Rothschild, 1918: 233. Type Locality: “Park City, Utah” [Summit County]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863.
Parnassius delius catullius Fruhstorfer, 1923: 5. Type Locality: “Colorado, Pikes Peak...ca. 12-13 500 Fuß” [El Paso-Teller counties]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863.
P[arnassius]. delius aristion Fruhstorfer, 1923: 5. Type Locality: “Colorado”. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863.
P[arnassius]. delius sordellus Fruhstorfer, 1923: 5. Type Locality: “Nordamerika--näherer Fundort unbekannt”. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863.
[Parnassius phoebus] hollandi Bryk & Eisner, 1935: 53. Type Locality: “La Sal Mts., Turpus Valley, Californien [sic!]” [Grand-Wayne counties, Utah]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863.
[Parnassius phoebus] dakotaensis Bryk & Eisner, 1935: 55. Type Locality: “Black Hills, Mt. Roosevelt, Dakota merid.” [Lawrence-Pennington counties, South Dakota]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863.
P[arnassius]. phoebus rotgeri O. Bang-Haas, 1938: 20, pl. 1, figs. 6 , 9 . Type Locality: “Colorado, westl. von Denver, Evans mont., Clear Creek, 3800 m” [Mount Evans, Clear Creek County, Colorado]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863.
Parnassius phoebus rubina Wyatt, 1961: 145-146, pl. 11, figs. 1 (holotype), 2 . Type Locality: “Liberty Peak, 3,120 m, Ruby Gebirge, südlich von Elko, Nevada”; redefined as “above Liberty Lake, Ruby Mountains, Elko County, Nevada” by Austin (1998), Syst. W. N. Am. Butts. (50): 630. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus sayii W. H. Edwards, 1863.
Parnassius v. smintheus ab. Leonhardi Bryk, 1912: 57, fig. 1 . Type Locality: “Colorado”. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius v. smintheus ab. Mariae Bryk, 1912: 57-58, fig. 3 . Type Locality: “Colorado”. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius smintheus ab. quincunx Bryk, 1915: pl. 9, fig. 67 ; (9): 140, text. Type Locality: Not stated; suggested to be “Colorado, U.S.A.” by Eisner (1966), Zool. Verh. (81): 25. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius smintheus ab. fermata Bryk, 1921: 112-114, figs. 1 . Type Locality: “Denver Colorado Rocky mountains”. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
[Parnassius smintheus] ab. melanophorus Bryk, 1921: 114, fig. 2 . Type Locality: “Denver Colorado Rocky mountains”. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
[Parnassius phoebus rotgeri] f[orm]. reducta O. Bang-Haas, 1938: 20. Type Locality: “Colorado, westl. von Denver, Evans mont., Clear Creek, 3800 m” [Mount Evans, Clear Creek County, Colorado]. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.

Parnassius smintheus var. sternitzkyi McDunnough, 1937: 273-274, figs. of and . Type Locality: “Castle Lake, Siskiyou Co. Calif.” [California]. Subspecies.

Parnassius smintheus olympianna Burdick, 1941: 117-118, figs. , . Type Locality: “Hurricane Ridge, Olympic Range, Clallam Co., Washington”. Subspecies.
Parnassius phoebus guppyi Wyatt, 1969: 132-133, pl. 15, figs. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . Type Locality: “Mt. Arrowsmith, Vancouver-Insel, Britisch Kolumbien, Kanada, 1500 m”. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus sternitzkyi McDunnough, 1937.

Parnassius phoebus yukonensis Eisner, 1969: 175. Type Locality: “5 miles s.w. Haines Junction, Yukon” [Yukon Territory]. Subspecies.

[Parnassius Smintheus var.] Magnus W. G. Wright, 1905: 80-81, pl. 2, figs. 13 , 13b . Type Locality: “British Columbia”; “Enderby, B. C.”. Subspecies.
Par[nassius]. Smintheus var. xanthus Ehrmann, 1918: 21-22. Type Locality: “Moron [sic!], Idaho” [Moscow, Latah County, Idaho]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus magnus W. G. Wright, 1905.
P[arnassius] phoebus idahoensis Bryk & Eisner, 1931: 5-6, fig. 4 , 5 . Type Locality: “Wallace, Idaho” [Shoshone County]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus magnus W. G. Wright, 1905.
[Parnassius phoebus] montanula Bryk & Eisner, 1935: 55. Type Locality: “Turah, Montana” [Missoula County]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius smintheus magnus W. G. Wright, 1905.
P[arnassius] phoebus smintheus forma mendica Stichel, 1907: 20. Type Locality: “Montana, Brit. Columbia, Colorado”. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.

Parnassius smintheus maximus Bryk & Eisner, 1937: 7. Type Locality: “Judith Mts., Montana, U.S.A.” [Fergus County]. Subspecies.
P[arnassius]. delius var. apricatus forme pseudocorybas Verity, [1909]: (11/12): 107 [31 Oct 1907]; (24/25): pl. 24, figs. 12 , 13 . Type Locality: “Montana” implied from the text, “Montana, Montagnes Rocheuses” from the legend to plate 24. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.

Parnassius phoebus pseudorotgeri Eisner, 1966: 144. Type Locality: “Elwood-Pass, Rio Grande Co., Colorado, U.S.A.”. Subspecies.

Rocky Mountain Parnassian

Habit:

P. smintheus dakotaensis (=sayii) : without data P. smintheus rotgeri (=sayii) : without data P. smintheus catullius (=sayii) underside: without data P. smintheus catullius (=sayii) underside: without data
Picture from: Global Butterfly Information System: ZSM, Munich
Detailed view
Picture from: Global Butterfly Information System: MNB, Berlin
Detailed view
Picture from: Global Butterfly Information System: ZSM, Munich
Detailed view
Picture from: Global Butterfly Information System: ZSM, Munich
Detailed view

Description of adults: Examined: 1 . Wing expanse: 50.8 mm. Face covered with long, creamy, partly mixed black and white hair-like scales; caput with distant short black and few white scales; eyes very big, semi-globular, dark red-brown; labial palpi distinctly longer than head, smoothly scaled with creamy scales and ventrally directed, more brownish, hair-like scales; antennae about 1/4 of forewing length, very distinctly ringed black and white, antennal bulb black; thorax black, anteriorly densely, laterally and posteriorly scarcely covered with grey-white, partly brown, hair-like scales; forewing upperside, except for apex and outer margin, completely covered by chalk-white scales; basis and costal margin irrorated blackish; in the middle of cell and at discus a broad black cross-spot each across the whole width of the cell; a small black, red centered spot at 2/3, close to anterior margin; an indistinct black spot each at anterior margin at 5/6 and postdiscally between M1 and M2; apex and outer margin in a broad belt, narrowing towards anal angle, with lanceolate black scales, not completely covering the wing membrane; veins black distally; fringe creamy, broad black at distal ends of veins; hindwing upperside also completely covered with chalk-white scales; inner margin in a broad belt black, with irregular inner margin, narrowing towards and not reaching anal angle; a red, broadly black encircled spot each slightly posterior to middle of anterior margin and postdiscally between M1 and M2; veins delicately black; fringe white, black at M3 and both cubital veins; forewing underside mostly devoid of any scales, with some fatty gloss, only black spots with broad black scales and distally with narrow lanceolate, chalk-white scales; markings like on upperside; hindwing underside with similar scaling like forewing, but black inner margin irrorated white with single red scales; postdiscal red spot between M1 and M2 with white center; medially, between Cu1 and Cu2 a small black spot; underside of thorax and legs downwards to femora with long, grey-white, hair-like scales; abdomen black, on upperside scarcely, on underside more densely covered with grey-white, mixed brownish, hair-like scales.

are usually somewhat larger, with extended blackish irroration and bigger red spots.

Distribution:

The species is distributed in western Canada and the north-western United States (Häuser et al. 2005).

Biology:

     
USA, Perry Creek Research Natural Area      
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Walter Siegmund (CC-BY-SA 3.0)
Detailed view
     

Stages in development:

Larva. Following Savela (2015), the larva feeds on Sedum-species: S. lanceolatum, S. roseum, S. divergens, S. stenopetalum and S. oreganum.

Diagnosis:

From other taxa of the complex which are now often regarded as separate species, especially Parnassius corybas Fischer de Waldheim, 1824 and Parnassius behrii W.H. Edwards, 1870, P. smintheus is mainly separated by the structure of the micropyle of the egg (Shepard & Manley 1998, Hanus & Teye 2010).

Worth knowing:

Sources:

Ackery, P. R. 1973. A list of the type-specimens of Parnassius (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in the British Museum (Natural History). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 29: 1-35, 1 pl.
Doubleday, E. & J. O. Westwood ([1846–1852]). The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, 2 vols. — London (Rivington), 354 pp., 85 col. pls, 1 plain pl.
Hanus, J. & M.-L. Teye 2010. Parnassius phoebus (Fabricius, 1793), a misidentified species (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Nachrichten des entomologischen Vereins Apollo, neue Folge 31 (1/2): 71-84.
Häuser, C. L., J. Holstein & A. Steiner 2005. The Global Butterfly Information System. http://www.globis.insects-online.de. Last updated 15.02.2014 [online 17 August 2015].
Savela, M. 2015. Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Parnassius Latreille, 1804. - available at: http://ftp.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/insecta/lepidoptera/ditrysia/papilionoidea/papilionidae/parnassiinae/parnassius/ [online 18 August 2015].
Shepard, J. H., & T. R. Manley 1998. A species revision of the Parnassius phoebus complex in North America (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). — pp. 717–726 in: Emmel, T. C., Systematics of Western North American butterflies (Mariposa), XXVIII + 878 pp.
Warren, A. D., K. J. Davis, N. V. Grishin, J. P. Pelham & E. M. Stangeland 2012. Interactive Listing of American Butterflies. [30-XII-12]. http://www.butterfliesofamerica.com/ [online 18 August 2015].

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2013.01.24
Kurz Michael: 2015.08.21
not reviewed

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