N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Stigmella azaroli (Klimesch, 1978)

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Nepticula azaroli Klimesch, 1978: 261-263.
Type locality: Greece, Rhodes, Rodini
Type: Holotype : "Mine an Crataegus azarolus, Zucht Nr. 1052, 22.9.1972, Rhodos, Rodini, ex l. 10.— 11.10.1972". coll. ZSM, Munich

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:


Description of adults: Wing expanse: 3.0 - 4.0 mm; vestiture of hair-like scales on the head in both genera light rusty coloured; collare lighter; maxillary palpi yellowish, the shorter labial palpi alike; eye caps yellowish-white; antennae dark grey, somewhat longer than 1/2 (), respectively, 1/2 () of forewing length; thorax and abdomen dark grey, underside light grey, shining; forewings unicolorous ash grey, with dull glance; fringe dark grey, not distinguished from the wing ground; hindwing grey, with similar fringe; underside of all wings unicolorous grey; legs grey, underside yellowish-grey, smoothly scaled (Klimesch 1978).


Following Klimesch (1978), the species is known from Anatolia, Mut (Mersin), the north-western end of the lake Beysehir (Isparta), 1100 m and from Rhodes: Rodini and Mt. Smith, near to the Akropolis. The species has also been found in Cyprus (Karsholt & Nieukerken 2004).


The imagines fly in two generations per year. Klimesch (1978) has found tenanted mines in May, June and again in September, with imagines emerging in June and October. In autumn, the pupal stage lastet only about 10 days. The females of the autumn generation most probably lay their eggs close to the buds of the shrubs, which where already defoliated at this time. An overwintering of the imagines, however, is quite unlikely. Klimesch (1978) also observed a mating swarm of males on 18th of June 1966 on the north-western end of lake Beysehir (Anatolia) at sunrise: many were swarming in calm air close above a shrub of Crataegus azarolus. Capturing with artificial light in close neighbourhood to these bushes, never yielded any imagines.

Stages in development:

Mine on Crataegus azarolus: Rhodes, Rodini, 1973.09.04      
Picture from: Klimesch 1978
Detailed view

Description of early stages following Klimesch (1978):

Egg. The egg is laid on the underside of a leaf of Crataegus azarolus L., mostly close to the midrib.

Larva. The larva is light yellow, with a brown head. The mine mostly starts at a rib, often the midrib, as a delicate gallery, completely filled with black frass. It then widens blotch-like, with a central, loosened line of frass, which fills the mine only for 1/3 to 1/4. The cocoon is oval, flat, smooth and brown (Klimesch 1978).


-genitalia, prep.-no. 1262, J. Klimesch: Anatolia, NW-end of Beysehir gölü, 1966.06.14, leg. et coll. J. Klimesch (now ZSN, Munich) -genitalia, prep.-no. 4102, J. Klimesch: Rhodes, Mt. Smith, e.l. 1973.09.18, leg. et coll. J. Klimesch (now ZSM, Munich)    
Picture from: Klimesch 1978
Detailed view
Picture from: Klimesch 1978
Detailed view

genitalia. Vinculum deeply excavated; ventral margin of valvae almost straight, apically with short, inwardly directed, finger-like appendage; Uncus medially excavated, with two lateral incisions; aedeagus with three rows of prominent cornuti and a cornutal plate (Klimesch 1978).

genitalia. Apophyses anteriores inflated, apophyses posteriores rod-like; vestibulum bulgy inflated; bursa copulatrix comparatively small, weakly sclerotized, without signum or any other recognizable structure (Klimesch 1978).


Following Klimesch (1978), the species is closely related to Stigmella perpygmaeella (Doubleday, 1859), feeding on Crataegus oxyacantha and C. monogyna. The latter, however, is bigger and more robust (wing expanse 4.5-5.5 mm), with dull violet shimmering forewings and lighter rusty-coloured hair-like scales on the head. In the -genitalia, S. azaroli possesses rounded humps in the lateral part of the uncus, which are more pointed in S. perpygmaeella. The cornuti in the aedeagus seem to be more numerous in S. perpygmaeella than in S. azaroli. In the of S. azaroli, the anterior apophyses are broader, the vestibulum seems to be more bulgy than in S. perpygmaeella. Both species lack a signum and the wall of the bursa shows no recognizable structures (Klimesch 1978).

Worth knowing:


Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken 2004. Nepticulidae. In - Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken (eds.). Lepidoptera, Moths. – Fauna Europaea version 1.1, http://www.faunaeur.org [online 2008.10.08].
Klimesch, J. 1978. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Nepticulidenfauna von Anatolien und der Insel Rhodos (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 121: 239-278.

Publication data:

Kurz Michael: 2016.03.09
Kurz Michael: 2017.06.01
not reviewed