N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Micropterix allionella (Fabricius, 1794)

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Tinea allionella Fabricius, 1794: 321.
Type locality: Southern Europe.
Type: Not designated, in coll. ZMUC (Karsholt in litt.).

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
Tinea tricinctella Costa, 1836: 223, pl. 2 fig. 2. Type locality: Napoli (Italy). Junior subjective synonym.
Micropteryx rothenbachii auct. nec Frey, 1856.

Habit:

: Piemonte, Cuneo, Valle Corsaglia, 1050 m, 1973.05.25, leg. Jaeckh, coll. United States National Museum, Washington : Liguria, Savona, Noli, 1974.04, leg. Klimesch, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, Munich : France, Alpes Maritimes, near Nice, La Turbie, 1952.05, leg. Klimesch, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, Munich : Piemonte, Cuneo, Valle Corsaglia, 1050 m, 1973.05.25, leg. Jaeckh, coll. United States National Museum, Washington
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view

Scheme of wing pattern:

Description of adults: Examined: 5 , 3 . Forewing length: 3.6–4.5 mm; 4.7–4.8 mm. Head black-brown; vestiture of hair-like scales on the head dirty white to rusty yellow; antennae somewhat longer than 3/4 (), or nearly 2/3 () of the forewing length, sexually dichroic, with the brown, golden shining with more or less purple tinge, with the distinctly bi-coloured: light golden at the base to nearly 1/3, apically similar to the ; thorax golden, tegulae coppery bronzy golden to purple; forewing brown golden, especially at the costa mixed with purplish to purplish violet with a golden basal area and light golden to golden markings, bordered delicately in bronzy gold, broader in males, more slender in females: a broad fascia nearly at 1/4, narrowed at the costa; a broad fascia at nearly 1/2, somewhat narrower medially and more or less bent distad; mostly a small costal spot at 2/3; a fascia at 3/4, more or less triangleshaped; wing often bronzy golden at the apex and sometimes partially so at the inner margin; tip of the apex purple; fringe whitish golden; hindwing greenish bronzy golden to bronzy golden, more or less with a purple tinge; fringe light golden, with a purple tinge at the basal half; legs and abdomen brown, golden shining.

Distribution:

According to Heath (1996) and Karsholt (2004) this species occurs in France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Slovenia, and Yugoslavia. Following Meeß (1910) and Meyrick (1912) M. allionella (noted as M. rothenbachi(ii)) occurs in Switzerland (see also Whitebread 1992), in northern and central Italy and in Austria. Furthermore, this species occurs in the Bavarian Alps (Osthelder 1951; Pröse 1987), together with M. rothenbachii according to Pröse (1987).
Leraut (1980) has recorded this species from France, Belgium and Corse. But these records seem partially to be misidentifications of M. rothenbachii. The records from Turkey (Heath 1996 and Kocak & Kemal 2008) seem to be doubtful.
This species has also been recorded from southern Italy (Zeller-Lukashort, Kurz & Kurz 2002; Whitebread 1995).
Records indicate a vertical distribution from about 250 up to nearly 2300 m, but with only one record above 1800 m (Kurz et al. 2009).

Biology:

     
Tyrol, Wildschönau, May 2007. [uncertain identity]      
Picture from: © Funk Wilfried
Detailed view
     

We have found this species in clearings and on the outskirts of forest flying in tall herbaceous vegetation. The flight period of the imagines lasts from April to July, depending on the altitude (Kurz et al. 2009).

Stages in development:

The early stages are unknown.

Anatomy:

, scheme of cuticula -genitalia, prep.-no. 750, M.Kurz: Liguria, Savona, Noli, 1951.04.26, leg. Josef Klimesch, coll. Michael Kurz -genitalia, prep.-no. 327, M.Kurz: "Italia, Liguria; Noli (Savona); 23. - 30.IV.1951; J.Klimesch", coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, Munich , scheme of cuticula
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
-genitalia, prep.-no. 812, M.Kurz, preparation in caustic potassium: Emilia Romagna, nothern Apennines, Sestola, 1992.05.29, leg. Hausenblas, Zeller, Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz -genitalia, prep.-no. 812, M.Kurz: Emilia Romagna, northern Apennines, Sestola, 1992.05.29, leg. Hausenblas, Zeller, Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz -genitalia, prep.-no. 340, M.Kurz: "Italia, Liguria; Noli (Savona); 23. - 30.IV.1951; J.Klimesch", coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, Munich -genitalia, receptaculum seminis in higher magnification, prep.-no. 340, M.Kurz: "Italia, Liguria; Noli (Savona); 23. - 30.IV.1951; J.Klimesch", coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, Munich
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view

Genitalia. Uncus moderately long, somewhat stout, a long tuft of hair-like setae ventrally beyond the uncus; accessory claspers moderately long, about four nearly Y- or T-shaped and moderately long and thickened setae at the tip; the posterior margin of the accessory claspers slightly bent outwards (bearing some longer spinoid setae); at the lower end of the posterior margin a small separated lobe, also with one or two longer spinoid setae; another two longer spinoid setae in the middle of the accessory claspers, distinctly behind the inner margin and in line with the Y- or T-shaped thickened setae; valvae moderately long, distally constricted medially, weakly bent; basally a longer spinoid seta on the inner surface as well as some setae postbasally; tip of valvae slightly spatulate with two or three irregular rows of shorter spinoid setae and a row of longer setae on the inner surface; another two shorter spinoid setae, displaced towards the constriction.

Genitalia. Tergite IX missing; sternite IX strongly reduced, constricted medially, with a distinct border, although weakly sclerotized. Terminal papillae with a strong sclerotized band; ductus receptaculi starting broadly, then very narrow at the beginning of the receptaculum seminis; receptaculum seminis moderately long, the distal third a sac that abruptly narrows; the proximal two thirds an elongated sac; receptaculum seminis with distinct striation; a sac-like vestibulum.

Diagnosis:

M. allionella without costal spot at 2/3: Piemonte, Cuneo, Valle Corsaglia, 1050 m, 1973.05.25, leg. Jaeckh, coll. United States National Museum, Washington M. rothenbachii : Tuscany, Lucca, near Castelnuovo di Garfagnana, Filippi, 1993.05.14, leg. Hausenblas, Zeller, Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz M. trifasciella : France, Hautes Alpes, Isoard Col Perdu, 2400 m, 1988.07.21, leg. Gibeaux, coll. Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum M. hartigi : Basilicata, Lucano, Viggianello, 1000 m, 2000.06.07, leg. Zeller, coll. Michael Kurz
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
M. aureatella aureatella : Salzburg, Pinzgau, Unken, Heutal, location 1, 2000.05.21, leg. Christof Zeller, coll. Christof Zeller M. rablensis : Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Tarviso, Lago del Predil, 2001.06.30, coll. Michael Kurz M. allionella, genitalia, prep.-no. 750, M.Kurz: Liguria, Savona, Noli, 1951.04.26, leg. Josef Klimesch, coll. Michael Kurz M. rothenbachii, genitalia, prep-no. 756, M.Kurz: Marche, Ascoli Piceno, Monti Sibillini, Forca Canapine, 1500 m, 1993.05.19, coll. Michael Kurz
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
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M. trifasciella, genitalia, prep.-no. 751, M.Kurz: Piemonte, Cuneo, Bellino, Santa Anna, Valle Traversagn, 2100 m, 2001.07.21, leg. Peter Huemer, coll. Michael Kurz M. hartigi, genitalia, prep-no. 676, M.Kurz: Puglia, Promontorio del Gargano, Foresta Umbra, 1993.05.22, leg. Zeller/Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz M. aureatella aureatella, genitalia, prep.-no. 202, Ch. Zeller: Austria, Salzburg, Flachgau, Eugendorf, Unzing, Wörlemoos, 2003.05.17, leg. Hausenblas & Zeller, coll. Christof Zeller M. rablensis, genitalia, prep-no. 787 M.Kurz: Styria, near Graz, Gösting, [? 18]66.06.20, coll. Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Picture from: © Zeller Christof
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
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M. allionella, genitalia, prep.-no. 812, M.Kurz: Emilia Romagna, northern Apennines, Sestola, 1992.05.29, leg. Hausenblas, Zeller, Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz M. rothenbachii, genitalia, prep.-no. 888, M.Kurz: Veneto, Verona, 15 km north of Verona, Velo Veronese, 1000 m, 1999.06.19, leg. J. Wimmer, coll. Michael Kurz M. trifasciella, genitalia, prep.-no. 813, M.Kurz: Piemonte, Cuneo, Colle dell´ Agnello, 2150 m, 2001.07.20, leg. Peter Huemer, coll. Michael Kurz M. hartigi -genitalia, prep.-no. 887, M.Kurz: Basilicata, Lucano, Viggianello, 1000 m, 2000.06.07, leg. Christof Zeller, coll. Michael Kurz
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
   
M. aureatella aureatella, genitalia, prep.-no. 808, M.Kurz: Austria, Vorarlberg, Brandnertal, Böser Tritt, 1700 m, 2004.07.30, leg. Puchmayr & Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz M. rablensis, genitalia, prep-no. 814, M.Kurz: Friuli-Venezia Giuglia, near Tarvis, Lago del Predil, 2001.06.30, leg. Zeller/Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz    
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
   

M. allionella can be separated from most similar species by its broad golden fasciae, its small costal spot at 2/3 and almost complete absence of a golden inner margin. Sometimes Micropterix trifasciella Heath, 1965 has also a small costal spot at 2/3 and also sometimes this spot is missing in M. allionella, and therefore M. allionella, especially males with reduced golden outer margin, could be misidentified as M. trifasciella. M. allionella is also very similar to Micropterix rothenbachii Frey, 1856 and cannot always be separated externally for sure. M. rothenbachii has a more distinct purple to purplish violet colouration, broader golden fasciae (fasciae of males of M. allionella are nearly as broad as the fasciae of females of M. rothenbachii) and a more intense bronzy golden colouration at the apex and at the outer margin. M. allionella without costal spot at 2/3 can also be confused with Micropterix aureatella (Scopoli, 1763) and Micropterix rablensis Zeller, 1868. Micropterix hartigi Heath, 1981 (from southern Italy) is also usually very similar to reddish or brown-golden coloured forms of M. allionella (especially male), but can be distinguished by its genitalia. M. allionella has a somewhat longer uncus than M. rothenbachii and also differently shaped accessory claspers. M. allionella has four Y- or T-shaped thickened setae at the tip of the accessory claspers (M. rothenbachii only three, but these are also more distinct). M. allionella has valvae which are only weakly bent dorsad (M. rothenbachii has more slender valvae and the distal third is distinctly bent dorsad). In the male genitalia, M. trifasciella is very similar to M. allionella, but can be separated as follows: The uncus is more distinctly separated and not as broad as in M. allionella, the accessory claspers are somewhat shorter and broader at the base. The distal third of the valvae of M. trifasciella is distinctly broader than in M. allionella, and somewhat triangle-shaped (in M. allionella narrow, spatulate). The differences in the genitalia to M. trifasciella are very small, since the kind of spinoid setae on the accessory claspers seems not to be a constant character.
The abdomen of the female of M. allionella is indistinguishable from M. rothenbachii and M. trifasciella, whereas form and sclerotization of sternite IX seem to be diagnostic features in order to distinguish the species from M. hartigi, M. aureatella and M. rablensis.

Phylogeny: M. allionella is most closely related to M. trifasciella, with minute differences only even in the male genitalia. With some other species in common is another character of the male genitalia: The one or two anteriormost setae on the ventral margin of the accessory claspers are distinctly offset from the others in the row. Among these species are M. hartigi, which is believed to be one of the more primitive members of the group due to the presence of distinct lobes between uncus and accessory claspers, and also M. rothenbachii and M. huemeri. All these species are quite similar externally too (see above).

Worth knowing:

Sources:

Costa O.-G. 1834 ["1832–1836"]. Lepidotteri. – In: O. G. Costa & A. Costa [eds], Fauna del regno di Napoli ossia enumerazione di tutti gli animali che abitano le diverse regioni di questo regno e le acque che le bagnano contenénto la descrizione de nuovi o poco esattamente conosciuti. – Napoli (Dai Torchi del Trameter): pp. [1]–[314], pls 1–14.
Fabricius, J. C. 1794, Entomologica systematica emendata et aucta. 3 (2). 349 pp. Hafniae.
Heath, J. 1996. Family Micropterigidae – In: O. Karsholt & J. Razowski (eds), The Lepidoptera of Europa. A distributional checklist. – Apollo-Books, Stenstrup.
Karsholt, O. 2004. Families Acanthopteroctetidae, Axiidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Drepanidae, Eriocottidae, Eriocraniidae, Gelechiidae, Heterogynidae, Limacodidae, Lypusidae, Micropterigidae, Roeslerstammiidae, Somabrachyidae, Uraniidae. In: Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken (eds.). Lepidoptera, Moths. – Fauna Europaea version 1.1, http://www.faunaeur.org [online 16 December 2004].
Kocak A. Ö. & M. Kemal 2008: Checklist of the Diurnal Lepidoptera of Turkey. Priamus 15 (Suppl.): 1-41.
Kurz, M. A., M. E. Kurz & H. C. Zeller-Lukashort 2000–2009. Naturkundliches Informationssystem. – URL: http://www.nkis.info [visited on March 26, 2009].
Leraut, P. 1980. Liste systématique et synonimique des Lépidoptères de France, Belgique et Corse. – Supplément á Alexanor et Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 334 pp.
Meeß, A. 1910. Micropterygideae. pp. 483–484. – In: A. Spuler (1903–1910), Die Schmetterlinge Europas. – E. Schweitzerbart´sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart. 523 pp., 91 pls.
Meyrick, E. 1912. Adelidae, Micropterygidae, Gracilariadae. – In: H. Wagner (ed.), Lepidopterorum Catalogus, pars 6, Berlin.
Osthelder, L. 1951. Die Schmetterlinge Südbayerns und der angrenzenden nördlichen Kalkalpen. II. Die Kleinschmetterlinge. 2. Heft. – Beilage zu Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 41.
Pröse, H. 1987. Kleinschmetterlinge: Wissensstand, Erhebungen und Artenschutzproblematik, Anhang: Artenliste der in Bayern und den angrenzenden Gebieten nachgewiesenen Microlepidoptera (Kleinschmetterlinge). – Schriftenreihe Bayerisches Landesamt für Umweltschutz 77: 37–102.
Whitebread, S. 1992. The Micropterigidae of Switzerland, with a key to their identification (Lepidoptera). – Nota lepidopterologica, suppl. 4: 129–143.
Whitebread, S. 1995. Micropterigidae. – In: O. Karsholt, E. J. van Nieukerken, S. Whitebread & S. Zangheri 1995. Checklist delle specie delle fauna Italiana. – Edizione Calderini Bologna Fascicolo 80: 4–5.
Zeller-Lukashort, H. C., M. E. Kurz & M. A. Kurz 2002. Neue Funddaten von Arten der Gattung Micropterix Hübner, [1825] (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae). – Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Österreichischer Entomologen 54: 35–38.

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2006.04.14
Zeller Christof: 2006.11.19
Kurz Michael: 2008.11.13
Kurz Michael: 2009.03.26
Zeller Christof: 2009.03.27
Kurz Michael: 2009.03.27
Kurz Marion: 2009.10.15
Kurz Marion: 2009.10.19
Kurz Michael: 2009.11.24
Kurz Michael: 2009.11.26
Kurz Marion: 2009.12.09
Kurz Michael: 2010.03.13
Document reviewed by:
not reviewed: 2010.03.13
Document released by:
Kurz Michael: 2010.03.13

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