N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Iphiclides podalirius (Linné, 1758)

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Papilio podalirius, Linnaeus, 1758: 463.
Type locality: Italy, Tuscany, Livorno (designated by Verity, 1947)
Type: deposit unknown

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
List of synonymy following Savela (2018):

Papilio sinon Poda, 1761: 62, pl. 2, f. 1. Type locality: Greece. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio podalirius podalirius Linné, 1758.
Papilio flammeus Fourcroy, 1785: 242. Type locality: France. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio podalirius podalirius Linné, 1758.
Podalirius europaeus Swainson, 1832: 105. Type locality: None given. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio podalirius podalirius Linné, 1758.
Papilio podalirius var. flaccidus Krulikowsky, 1908: 2. Type locality: Wiatka; Kasan. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio podalirius podalirius Linné, 1758.
Papilio podalirius var. zanclaeus Zeller, 1847: 213. Type locality: None given. Infrasubspecific name (saisonal form).
Papilio podalirius var. diluta de Selys-Longchamps, 1857: 4. Type locality: None given. Infrasubspecific name.
Papilio podalirius ab. nigrescens Eimer, 1889: 81, 82. Type locality: None given. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Papilio podalirius ab. undecimlineatus Eimer, 1889: 41, pl. 1, f. 3. Type locality: None given. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Papilio podalirius ab. miegii Thierry-Mieg, 1889: 74. Type locality: Eastern Pyrenees. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Papilio virgatus Butler, 1865: 430, pl. 25, f. 1. Type locality: Damaskus. Subspecies.
Papilio podalirius smyrnensis Eimer, 1889: 94, f. M. Type locality: Smyrna. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio virgatus Butler, 1865.
Iphiclides podalirius persica Verity, 1911. Type locality: Iran. Subspecies.
Iphiclides podalirius xinyuanensis Huang & Murayama, 1992: 1. Type locality: Xinyuan, Tianshan, 800m. Subspecies.

Scarce Swallowtail
Le Flambé
Segelfalter
Podalirio

Habit:

: Russia, south Urals : Russia, south Urals : Russia, south Urals : Russia, south Urals
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: Styria, southeastern uplands, near Feldbach, Gossendorf, 1977.07.24, leg. M.Pfeiler, coll. Michael Kurz , underside: Styria, southeastern uplands, near Feldbach, Gossendorf, 1977.07.24, leg. M.Pfeiler, coll. Michael Kurz    
Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Desciption of adults: Examined: 1 of gen. aest. Wing expanse: 65 mm. Head black, hair-like scales of head distant; a black stripe from face across frons till first thoracic segment; hair-like coat laterally creamy till the eyes, beyond eyes to the wing root black, beyond again creamy; a rusty coloured tuft above proboscis; eyes large, semi-globular, dark brown; palpi short, directed ahead, inwardly rusty brown, on the outside creamy proximally, rusty brown apically; antenna about 2/5 of forewing length, black-brown, antenal club black; thorax black, especially laterally with scarce, but long creamy hair-coat; forewing upperside creamy wit 7 black-grey, outwardly oblique cross-stripes: 1 near base, 2 at 1/4, 4 at 3/5, 6 and 7 submarginally and marginally respectively, only divided by a narrow creamy line; all of them across the whole wing width, anteriorly moderately broad, 4th, 6th and 7th cross-stripe tapering posteriorly; 3rd cross-stripe only across cell width; 5th stripe slightly longer, both of them tapering posteriorly; hindwings also creamy, with an approximately 15 mm long tail on vein Cu1; hindwing with a double black-grey cross-streak along inner margin and a delicate cross-streak from about 2/5 stretching towards anal angle; at anal angle a black cobalt blue cored spot, which is broadly bordered above in orange; outer margin anteriorly narrow, posteriorly very broad black-grey, inwardly indistinctly bordered; submarginally, a lunular spot each between veins, the uppermost between M1 and M2 creamy, the following four cobalt blue; extreme margin of wing undulate and delicately creamy between veins; tail also creamy on both sides of its onset and apically; underside similar to upperside; on the forewing, the outer cross-stripes partly dusted creamy inwardly; on the hindwing, the outer dark stripe on inner margin missing; the cross-stripe at 2/5 doubled and a delicate white cross-line at 4/5 almost to M3; dark scaleing in outer wing area less intense; thorax with creamy hair cover on underside; legs creamy, tibiae of fore- and midlegs with broad, black-grey longitudinal stripes; abdomen black-grey on upperside, laterally and on underside creamy with a lateral and sublateral, delicate black stripe on each side.

Distribution:

The distribution area reaches from central and southern Europe (north)-eastern of the Pyrenees across Asia Minor to the Transcaucasus and throughout temperate Asia to western China (Tolman & Lewington 1998). In central Europe, the species is distributed northwards to the German low mountain range. The northernmost border of its regular distribution range crosses Sachsen and central Poland. In the northern German lowlands it is not native, although single animals may be found erratically not only here, but also in England and up to central Sweden. In the Alps, the species does not overcome a height of 1600 m (Forster & Wohlfahrt 1976). On the Balkan peninsula and in Italy, it also seldom exceeds 1700 m. In Iran however, it has been found up to 2200 m (Kurz & Kurz 2018).

Biology:

Greece, Epirus, street to Ioannina, between Pente Eklesies und Plakoti, 2003.05.19 the same butterfly Styria, near Graz, Enzelsdorf, 2004.08.08 Styria, near Graz, Enzelsdorf, 2002.04.07
Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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Styria, near Graz, Enzelsdorf Lombardia, Lago di Garda, Rocca di Manerba - Dusano, 2013.07.17    
Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
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As natural biotope, diversely structured areas with groups of bushes, wood margins and adjacent flowering meadows are preferred. The animals fly however also on rocky terrain, on dry and steppe meadows, in tall herb vegeation, along macchia and even in settlements and gardens (Kurz & Kurz 2018). The butterfly loves suny and dry slopes, which it ranges in elegant gliding, seldomly interrupted by a few wing beats. The animal flies individually in one generation from May to July north of the Alps. Only the the warmest regions, like in Elsaß, in the Main valley, in Moravia and Lower Austria two generations are found like south of the Alps (Forster & Wohlfahrt 1976). In the Mediterranean area, the first animals fly already in March, the last ones of the second generation are active till October (Kurz & Kurz 2018). North of the Alps, larvae are found in June and July, in the south in June, July and again from August to September. The pupa overwinters (Forster & Wohlfahrt 1976, Kurz & Kurz 2018).

Stages in development:

 
Egg on leaf of Prunus spinosa: Burgenland, Neusiedlersee, St. Margarethen-Berg, 2007.08.15 Larva: Styria, near Graz, Enzelsdorf, 2003.09.21 Larva, exhibiting its osmaterium: without data  
Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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Picture from: wikimedia commons: Abrahami (GNU Free Documentation Licence)
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Description of early stages following Forster & Wohlfahrt (1976) and Tolman & Lewington (1998):

Egg. The egg is laid singly on the lower leaf surface of blackthorn (Prunus spinosa). Further host plants are said to be Prunus padus, Prunus cerasus, as well as other Prunus-, Crataegus, Pyrus- and Malus-species, but also Sorbus aucuparia. The egg measures about 1 mm in diameter, the surface is smooth and of whitish-green colouration.

Larva. The young larva is blackish, setaceous, with two whitish spots on the back and a black head. Already after ist first moulding, it is green to yellow with yellow dorsal and subdorsal lines, yellow oblique stripes and brown spots. It is of peculiar shape, humped, smooth and tapering on the rear side. In this, it is adapted perfectly to the leaves of its most important food lant, which is Prunus spinosa. In creeping, the larva sways gently forewards and backwards.

Pupa. According to its place of pupation and season, the pupa is green (during sumer between foliage) or yellow to leathery brown (on bald branches during hibernation).

Anatomy:

     
-genitalia, laterally: Romania      
Picture from: © Higgins 1975, modified
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-genitalia. Tegumen atrophied; Supra-uncus missing, but genitalia narrowly encompassed by 8th sclerite; valve large, pear-like; sacculus like in Papilio; harpe not dentated, small, heavily sclerotized; saccus short, but massice; aedeagus bent, stiff, relatively long (Higgins, 1975).

Diagnosis:

 
I. podalirius podalirius : Russia, south Urals I. feisthamelii : Portugal I. podalirinus : without data  
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Picture from: wikimedia commons: Mikaël Vareillas (CC-BY-SA-3.0), modified
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The taxon feisthamelii Duponchel, 1832 from the Iberian peninsula and north Africa is greyish-white on the upperside in the first generation in males and pale yellowish in females. The black markings are more pronounced than in podalirius, the black marginal area of the hindwing upperside is broader. In the second generation, the are white on the upperside, the often pale yellow. The dark inner marginal and submarginal bands are reduced and often interrupted by a pale line or narrow fascia (Tolman & Lewington, 1998). The rating of feisthamelii as subspecies of podalirius or as distinct species remains controversial. Iphiclides podalirinus (Oberthür, 1890) from central Asia is generally darker in habit, with extended, on hindwing also more numerous dark cross-bands.

Genetics:

Chromosome number (haploid): 30 (Higgins 1975).

Worth knowing:

Sources:

Forster W. & Th.A. Wohlfahrt 1976. Die Schmetterlinge Mitteleuropas, 2, 2. Auflage, Franckh´sche Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart
Higgins, L. 1975. The Classification of European Butterflies, Collins, London
Kurz, M. A. & M. E Kurz 2001-2018. Naturkundliches Informationssystem. - available at: http://www.nkis.info [online 03 September 2018].
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. Systema Nat. ed. 10 i-ii + 1-824.
Savela, M. 2018. Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Iphiclides Hübner, [1819]. - available at: http://ftp.funet.fi/index/Tree_of_life/insecta/lepidoptera/ditrysia/papilionoidea/papilionidae/papilioninae/iphiclides/index.html [online 03 September 2018].
Tolman T. & R. Lewington 1998. Die Tagfalter Europas und Nordwestafrikas, übersetzt von M. Nuß, Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co., Stuttgart.

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2016.06.20
Kurz Michael: 2016.07.07
Kurz Michael: 2016.09.15
Kurz Michael: 2016.12.29
Kurz Michael: 2018.08.30
Kurz Michael: 2018.11.28
not reviewed

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