N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Parnassius (Parnassius) corybas Fischer von Waldheim, 1824

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Parnassius corybas Fischer von Waldheim, 1824: 241, pl. 6, figs. 1, 2.
Type locality: Russia, Kamchatka
Type: Syntypes probably in coll. Zoological Museum of the University, Moskow

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
Parnassius phoebus auctorum nec Fabricius, 1793. Misidentification.
Parnassius corybas altaicus Shepard & Manley, 1998: First use of Parnassius phoebus var. intermedius f. altaicus Ménétriés, 1859 on subspecific level. Type Locality: Russia, Altai. Subspecies.
Parnassius bremeri Bremer [Felder ms.], 1864; 6, t. 1, f. 3. Type locality: Russia, Oldoi river, Amur. Subspecies.
Parnassius delius rückbeili Deckert, 1909: 108. Type locality: China, Barkul Mts., eastern Xinjiang. Subspecies.

Taxonomic note: Papilio phoebus Fabricius, 1793 is now interpreted as senior subjective synonym of Doritis ariadne (Lederer, 1853), whereas the species that has been known as Parnassius phoebus auct. for more than two centuries has to be called now Parnassius corybas Fischer von Waldheim, 1824 (Hanus & Theye 2010).

Habit:

P. corybas corybas f. ochotskensis : Russia, far East P. corybas altaicus : Altai mountains P. corybas altaicus f. alpestris : Altai mountains P. corybas altaicus : Russia, Altai, near Ust-Kan, 2003.06.20, coll. Michael Kurz
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Picture from: www.ebay.at: © galijotas
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
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P. corybas altaicus f. alpestris : Altai mountains P. corybas altaicus underside: Russia, Altai, near Ust-Kan, 2003.06.20, coll. Michael Kurz    
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Description of adults: Examined: 1 . Wing expanse: 50 mm. Head black, with long, inwardly greyish-white, outwardly blackish vestiture of hair-like scales on frons; labial palpi brownish at basis, distally scaled white, with long, downwardly directed, black and greyish-white hair-like scales; eyes elongate oval, dark brown; antennae appr. 1/3 of forewing length, black, distinctly ringed white by a crown of white scales on every segment; forewing upperside nearly completely covered with white scales, near basis scaling more scarce, blackish suffused; outer margin also not completely covered with scales, grey with blackish nerves; submarginally a grey, narrow fascia across 3/4 of wing width, near costa bent distad, towards center dissolved into several spots; in middle of cell and at discus an elongate black cross-spot each, the one at discus nearly reaching costa; postdiscally a dark grey, indistinct, red-centered spot at costa, immediately followed dorsally by a somewhat bigger, more blackish spot between M1 and M2; above center of inner margin, a small black spot; hindwing upperside also completely covered with white scales; inner margin blackish in a broad belt, not reaching tornal angle, elongated into a delicate tip towards discus; immediately proximad to tornal angle, two small black spots, arranged cross-wise; basad middle of costa a round, crimson, delicately black bordered spot; a similar spot postdically between M1 and M2, centered white and accompanied by a small black spot posterior to M2; forewing underside nearly devoid of scales, except for the black spots in cell and some red scales in the area of the postdiscal costal spots; hindwings, except for the spots, also nearly devoid of scaling, with fatty gloss like forewings; spots along costa, between M1 and M2, as well as the two small spots near tornal angle all red, centered white and delicately bordered black; inner margin also with a broad belt of scaling, proximally black, distally white, with four red black bordered spots in costal, radial, medial and anal area; thorax ventrally densely covered with long whitish-grey, hair-like scales, as well as basis of black, partly white scaled legs; abdomen black, dorsally scarcely, ventrally densely covered with long, whitish-grey, hair-like scales.

: As usual, females are generally more blackish suffused, with bigger red spots.

Distribution:

The species is distributed from the Altai mountains to eastern Siberia, as well as in Alaska and the Canadian Yukon territory. An isolated population is known also from the northern Urals (Hanus & Teye 2010).

Diagnosis:

P. corybas altaicus : Russia, Altai, near Ust-Kan, 2003.06.20, coll. Michael Kurz P. sacerdos gazeli : without data P. smintheus dakotaensis : without data P. bremeri hakutozanus : North Korea, Ryanggang prov., Mount Pukpotae, 2008.06, coll. Michael Kurz
Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Picture from: Global Butterfly Information System: MNHN, Paris (creative commons)
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Picture from: Global Butterfly Information System: ZSM, Munich
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
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P. phoebus : Altai mountains P. corybas altaicus f. alpestris : Altai mountains P. sacerdos : Salzburg, Hohe Tauern, Sportgastein, 1650 m, 1978.08.20, coll. Michael Kurz P. smintheus rotgeri : without data
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Picture from: www.ebay.at: © galijotas
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Global Butterfly Information System: MNB, Berlin
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P. bremeri bremeri f. ellenae : without data P. phoebus : Altai mountains    
Picture from: Global Butterfly Information System: Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn
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From other taxa of the complex which are now often regarded as separate species, i.e. Parnassius sacerdos in Europe and Parnassius smintheus and Parnassius behrii in North America, P. corybas is mainly separated by the structure of the micropyle of the egg (Shepard & Manley 1998, Hanus & Teye 2010). The status of Parnassius bremeri, which is regarded as subspecies only by some authors (e.g. Hanus & Teye 2010) seems to be still questionable. It is easily distinguished from typical P. corybas, as well as from other subspecies, by the distinctly darker veins on the upperside. P. phoebus, with which P. corybas has been confused for two centuries, has the red spots on the hindwings more angular (Hanus & Teye 2010).

Worth knowing:

Sources:

Fischer von Waldheim, G. 1823–1824. Entomographia Imperii Russici: Genera Insectorum systematice exposita et analysi iconographica instructa. — Moscow, 2: 20 + 262 pp., 42 pls.
Hanus, J. & M.-L. Teye 2010. Parnassius phoebus (Fabricius, 1793), a misidentified species (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Nachrichten des entomologischen Vereins Apollo, neue Folge 31 (1/2): 71-84.
Häuser, C. L., J. Holstein & A. Steiner 2005. The Global Butterfly Information System. http://www.globis.insects-online.de. Last updated 14.04.2011 [online 15 January 2013].
Shepard, J. H., & T. R. Manley 1998. A species revision of the Parnassius phoebus complex in North America (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). — pp. 717–726 in: Emmel, T. C., Systematics of Western North American butterflies (Mariposa), XXVIII + 878 pp.

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2011.09.01
Kurz Michael: 2011.12.13
Kurz Michael: 2012.03.09
Kurz Michael: 2013.01.21
Kurz Michael: 2013.01.29
Kurz Michael: 2013.01.31
Kurz Michael: 2015.11.09
Kurz Michael: 2016.07.08
Kurz Michael: 2018.08.28
not reviewed

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