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Parnassius (Driopa) mnemosyne (Linné, 1758)

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Papilio mnemosyne Linnaeus, 1758: 465
Type locality: Finland
Type: Lectotype : "42. Mnemosyne"; "Mnemosyne 754."; in coll. The Linnean Collections at The Linnean Society of London (picture)

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
The following, certainly incomplete list has been compiled from Eisner (1954, 1955, 1957a, 1957b, 1958, 1959a, 1959b, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1966, 1968, 1969, 1971, 1974a, 1974b, 1975, 1978a, 1978b), Eisner & Sedych (1964), Eisner & Zelný (1977), Eisner & Krusek (1983), Hesselbarth et al. (1995), Lukhtanov (2006) and Waldeck (2006). It follows the concept of e.g. Higgins & Riley (1978) or Tolman & Lewington (1998), who treat in fact all European races as infrasubspecific to the nominotypical subspecies. If one also follows Hesselbarth et al. (1995), who unite the central Balkan and northern Turkish forms with Parnassius mnemosyne causcia Verity, [1911], then the latter also has to be regarded as synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne (Linné, 1758). On the other hand, Parnassius mnemosyne athene Stichel, 1906 may be considered as distinct subspecies, including also the forms of S-Turkey and the Levant. Very distinctive and therefore good subspecies seem to be furthermore Parnassius mnemosyne nubilosus Christoph, 1873 (including the forms grouped around) and Parnasius mnemosyne gigantea Staudinger, 1886. The status of most other races from central Asia, nevertheless, is still unclear but some of them undoubtedly can be synonymized with gigantea. Some unavailable names of non-geographic, individual forms are treated separately at the end of the list, as well as some nomina nuda, mainly introduced by Waldeck (2006) on the basis of misspellings.

Fennoscandia, north European lowlands:
Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linnaeus, 1758: Finland. Subspecies.
Parnassius mnemosyne borussianus Fruhstorfer, 1903: Baltic area, Kaliningrad region. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne karjala Bryk, 1911: Russia, Kareliya. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne banghaasi Bryk, 1912: Denmark. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne poppii Bryk, 1912: NW-Russia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne ugrofennica Bryk, 1913: Finland, Ĺland. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne argiope Fruhstorfer, 1917: southern Sweden. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne genuina Bryk, 1921: Finnland. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne perkele Bryk, 1921: Southern Finland. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne estonicus Bryk, 1922: Estonia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne romani Bryk, 1922: Central and southern Sweden. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne weidingeri Bryk & Eisner, 1932: Finland. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne krzikalloi Hering, 1932. Fennoscandia [?]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne nordströmi Bryk, 1940: Sweden. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne atlanticus Opheim, 1949: Norway. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne timanicus Eisner & Sedych, 1964: Russia, Timan mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne osiliensis Viidaleep, 1966. Estonia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.

Central and east European uplands:
Parnassius mnemosyne demaculatus Fruhstorfer, 1908: Czechia, Bohemia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne fasseliana Fruhstorfer, 1921. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne demaculatus Fruhstorfer, 1908.
Parnassius mnemosyne hungaricus Rotschild, 1909: Romania, Siebenbürgen. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne ariovistus Fruhstorfer, 1911: Germany, Nordrhein-Westfalen. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne hassicus Pagenstecher, 1911: Germany, Hessen. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne hercynianus Pagenstecher, 1911: Germany, Thüringen. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne silesiana Bryk, 1912: Poland, Silesia. Praeoccupavit by Parnassius apollo silesianus Marschner, 1909. Primary homonym.
Parnassius mnemosyne litavia Bryk, 1913: Austria, NE Lower Austria. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne bohemien Bryk, 1914: Czechia, Bohemia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne silesiacus Fruhstorfer, [?1908] 1916: Poland, Silesia. Nomen novum for Parnassius mnemosyne silesiana Bryk, 1912. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne mesoleucus Fruhstorfer, [1908?] 1917: Slovakia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne batava Fruhstorfer, 1921: Germany, northern Bavaria. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne ultrabella Fruhstorfer, 1922. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne batava Fruhstorfer, 1921.
Parnassius mnemosyne bohemicus Fruhstorfer, 1921: Unnecessary replacement name and junior objective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne bohemien Bryk, 1914 ?.
Parnassius mnemosyne schillei Bryk, 1922: W-Ukraine, Lemberg. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne grossei Bryk, 1925: SW-Ukraine. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne wagneri Bryk, 1925: NE-Romania. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne dioszeghyi Bryk, 1930: Romania, Siebenbürgen, Retezat mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne transsylvanica Schmidt, 1930: Romania, Siebenbürgen, Retezat mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne dioszeghyi Bryk, 1930.
Parnassius mnemosyne distincta Bryk & Eisner, 1930: Romania, Siebenbürgen, Cibin mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne cibinensis Dannehl, 1933: Romania, Siebenbürgen, Cibin mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne distincta Bryk & Eisner, 1930.
Parnassius mnemosyne bischoffi Bryk & Eisner, 1930: Romania, Siebenbürgen. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne kassaensis Bryk & Eisner, 1932: Slovakia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne compositus Bryk & Eisner, 1932: Austria, Lower Austria [Wachau]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne similis Bryk & Eisner, 1932: N-Czechia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne memnon Bryk & Eisner, 1934: Slovakia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne similis Bryk & Eisner, 1932.
Parnassius mnemosyne czekelii Bryk & Eisner, 1934: Romania, Siebenbürgen. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne drenowskyi Bryk & Eisner, 1934: E-Romania. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne montdorensis Kolar, 1943: France, Auvergne. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne veselyi Zelný, 1957: E-Slovakia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne duklensis Chrostowski, 1964: Poland, Dukli in Beskid Niski mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne kornutensis Chrostowski, 1964: Poland, Kornuty in Magura Wątkowska Range. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne livocensis Chrostowski, 1964: Poland, Pogórze Ciężkowickie. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne resoviensis Chrostowski, 1964: Poland, Rzeszow. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne sandecensis Chrostowski, 1964: Poland, Jaworzyna Krynicka Range. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne sitowskii Chrostowski, 1964: Poland, Pieniny mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne slovakiensis Eisner, 1969: E-Slovakia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.

Pyrenees:
Parnassius mnemosyne pyrenaica Turati, 1907: Praeoccupavit by Parnassius apollo pyrenaicus Harcourt-Bath, 1896. Primary homonym.
Parnassius mnemosyne turatii Fruhstorfer, 1908: France, Pyrenees. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne vernetanus Fruhstorfer, 1908: France, Toulouse. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne pyrenaiana Bryk, 1912. Nomen novum for Parnassius mnemosyne pyrenaica Turati, 1907. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne republicanus Peebles & Bryk, 1931: Spain, Pyrenees. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne ozalensis Gomez Bustillo & Gomez de Aizpurua, 1977: Spain, central Pyrenees. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.

Alps:
Parnassius mnemosyne melas Honrath, 1885: Austria, Carinthia; Slovenia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne hartmanni Standfuss, 1888: Germany, Bavaria, Berchtesgaden district; Austria, Salzburg. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne thaleia Fruhstorfer, 1916: Austria, N-Tyrol. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne hartmanni Standfuss, 1888.
Parnassius mnemosyne lysandra Fruhstorfer, 1921: Germany, Bavaria, Mangfalltal. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne hartmanni Standfuss, 1888.
Parnassius mnemosyne deutschi Bryk, 1922 [?]: Austria, Tyrol, Zillertal. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne hartmanni Standfuss, 1888.
Parnassius mnemosyne brigantinus Bryk & Eisner, 1932: Austria, Vorarlberg, Bregenzer Wald. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne hartmanni Standfuss, 1888.
Parnassius mnemosyne apoldi Koch, 1940: Austria, Salzburg, Pinzgau. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne hartmanni Standfuss, 1888.
Parnassius mnemosyne minor Rebel & Rogenhofer, 1893: Austria, Styria [Reichenstein]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linnaeus, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne tubulus Fruhstorfer, 1908: Austria, Styria. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne minor Rebel & Rogenhofer, 1893.
Parnassius mnemosyne symphorus Fruhstorfer, 1903: Italy, NE-Emilia Romagna. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne sire Bryk, 1922: Italy, NE-Emilia Romagna. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne symphorus Fruhstorfer, 1903.
Parnassius mnemosyne dinianus Fruhstorfer, 1907: France, Alpes Maritimes, Digne. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne parvus Stichel, 1907: Austria, Carinthia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne cuneifer Fruhstorfer, 1908: Italy, Trentino. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne parmenides Fruhstorfer, 1908: France, Alpes Maritimes. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne cassiensis Siépi, 1909: France, Dep. Var. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne tergestus Fruhstorfer, 1910: Switzerland, Glarus. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne temora Fruhstorfer, 1922: Switzerland, Glarus; St. Gallen. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne tergestus Fruhstorfer, 1910.
Parnassius mnemosyne excelsa Verity, 1910: France, Haute-Savoie. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne venetus Wagner, 1910: Italy, Emilia Romagna; Veneto. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne ausonica Bryk 1912: Italy, Trentino. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne benacensis Dürck, 1922: Italy, Trentino, Monte Baldo. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne ausonica Bryk 1912.
Parnassius mnemosyne lessinicus Dannehl, 1933: Italy, Emilia Romagna, Monte Pasubio. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne ausonica Bryk 1912.
Parnassius mnemosyne adamellicus Kunz, 1912: Italy, Trentino, Adamello mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne carmenta Fruhstorfer, 1917: Austria, Vorarlberg. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne ophrinion Fruhstorfer, 1917: Italy, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Slovenia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne esperi Bryk, 1922: Italy, Piemont, Torino. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne korbi Bryk, 1922: Germany, Alps, Allgäu. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne irena Fruhstorfer, [1921?] 1924: Allgäu. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne korbi Bryk, 1922.
Parnassius mnemosyne matuta Bryk, 1922: France, Alpes Maritimes. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne hunti Dujardin, 1967: France. Alpes Maritimes. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne matuta Bryk, 1922.
Parnassius mnemosyne mixtus Fruhstorfer, 1922: Switzerland, Valais. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne thebaida Fruhstorfer, 1922: Switzerland, Ticino. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne gallicus Bryk & Eisner, 1930: France, Hautes-Alpes. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne arollaensis Eisner, 1938: Switzerland, Valais. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne ceuzensis Eisner, 1957. France, Hautes-Alpes. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne puschlavensis Eisner 1958: Switzerland, Poschiavo. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne vivaricus Bernardi & Viette, 1961: France, Ardčche. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne cayollensis Dujardin, 1967: France, Hautes Provences. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne rogervarleti Eisner & Epstein, 1968: Switzerland, Ticino. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne ekplektus Rütimeyer, 1969: Switzerland, Bern. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne phaiohyalinus Rütimeyer, 1969: Switzerland, Bern. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne rencurelensis Vergely & Willien, 1972: France, Rhone-Alpes. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.

Apennines and Sicily:
Parnassius mnemosyne nebrodensis Turati, 1907: Italy, Sicily. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne fruhstorferi Turati, 1909: Italy, Abruzzo. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne aquilensis Bryk, 1912: Italy, Abruzzo, Gran Sasso. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne fruhstorferi Turati, 1909.
Parnassius mnemosyne euaquilensis Bryk & Eisner, 1932: Italy, Abruzzo, Gran Sasso. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne aquilensis Bryk, 1912.
Parnassius mnemosyne romanus Garavaglia, 1940: Italy, Abruzzo, Monte Terminillo. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne euaquilensis Bryk & Eisner, 1932.
Parnassius mnemosyne calabrica Turati, 1911: Italy, Calabria, Aspromonte. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne comitis Bryk, 1912: Italy, Abruzzo, Majella. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne eucomitis Bryk & Eisner, 1932: Italy, Abruzzo, Majella. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne comitis Bryk, 1912.
Parnassius mnemosyne constantinii Turati, 1919: Italy, Emilia Romagna, Modena. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne costarum Bryk, 1922: Italy, Marche. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne schawerdae Bryk, 1922: Italy, Umbria and Marche, Monti Sibillini. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne sulmonenesis Dannehl, 1929: Italy, Abruzzo. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne velinensis Dannehl, 1929: Italy, Abruzzo. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne sbordonii Eisner & Racheli, 1971: Italy, Lucania. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne cosenzaensis Eisner, 1978: Italy, Calabria, Cosenza. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne aldinae Nard. & Giand., 1991: Italy, Sicily. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne guccinii Sala & Bollino, 1992: Italy, Tuscany- Emilia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.

Balkans, northern Greece:
Parnassius mnemosyne leonhardiana Fruhstorfer, 1903 [1912?]: Bosnia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne parvisi Verity & Turati, 1911: Albania. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne orminion Fruhstorfer, 1917: Croatia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne bosniacus Rothschild, 1918: Bosnia and Hercegovina. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne dejotarus Fruhstorfer, [1917?] 1919: Bulgaria, Pirin mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne bureschi Bryk, 1921: SE-Macedonia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne balcanica Bryk & Eisner, 1930: S-Kosovo. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne alboti Bryk, 1932: Croatia, Dalmatia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne serbicus Bryk & Eisner, 1932: Serbia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne cupido Bryk & Eisner, 1934: Montenegro, Bjelastica Planina. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne bulgarica Eisner, 1936: NE-Bulgaria. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne psyche Eisner, 1936: Macedonia, Ohrid. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne eubalcanicus Eisner, 1937: Macedonia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne psyche Eisner, 1936.
Parnassius mnemosyne clorinda Kolar & Querci, 1937: Greece, Olympos. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.

central Ukraine, Wolga region, Tatarstan, S-Ural mountains:
Parnassius mnemosyne craspedontis Fruhstorfer, 1908: E-Ukraine, S-Russia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne ugrjumovi Bryk, 1914: Russia, Tatarstan. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne uralka Bryk, 1921: Russia, southern Ural mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne tjumensis Kreuzberg, 1989: Russia, southern Ural mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne uralka Bryk, 1921.
Parnassius mnemosyne ucrainica Bryk, 1932. central Ukraine. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.

northern Turkey, Caucasus:
Parnassius mnemosyne caucasia Verity, [1911]: Russia, Kuban. Subspecies (Hesselbarth et al. 1995) or junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne Linné, 1758.
Parnassius mnemosyne delgranprincipe Bryk, 1912: Georgia, Adzaria. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne caucasia Verity, [1911].
Parnassius mnemosyne angorae Bryk & Eisner, 1931: Turkey, Amasya. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne caucasia Verity, [1911].
Parnassius mnemosyne rjabovi Sheljuzhko, 1935: N-Armenia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne caucasia Verity, [1911].
Parnassius mnemosyne schweigeri Eisner, 1966: Turkey, Abant mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne caucasia Verity, [1911].
Parnassius mnemosyne taleschensis Ebert, 1975: NW-Iran, Talishi. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne caucasia Verity, [1911] ?.
Parnassius mnemosyne kocacki Eisner, 1978: NW-Turkey. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne caucasia Verity, [1911].
Parnassius mnemosyne bithyniae Betti, 1989; Turkey, N-Anatolia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne schweigeri Eisner, 1966.
Parnassius mnemosyne daghestanus Bryk & Eisner, 1934: Russia, Daghestan. Subspecies or junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne caucasia Verity, [1911].
Parnassius mnemosyne teberdaensis Eisner, 1954: Russia, Teberda [loc. inc. following Eisner 1957a]. Subspecies or junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne caucasia Verity, [1911].

southern Greece, S-Turkey and Levant:
Parnassius mnemosyne athene Stichel, 1906: Greece. Subspecies.
Parnassius mnemosyne sheljuzhkoi Bryk, 1914: Turkey, Taurus. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne athene Stichel, 1906.
Parnassius mnemosyne libanotica Bryk, 1914: Lebanon. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne athene Stichel, 1906.
Parnassius mnemosyne akbesiana Sheljuzhko, 1924: SE-Turkey, Anti-Taurus. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne athene Stichel, 1906.
Parnassius mnemosyne syra Sheljuzhko, 1924: Syria. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne athene Stichel, 1906.
Parnassius mnemosyne amanusica Bryk & Eisner, 1931: SE-Turkey, Amanus mountains. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne akbesiana Sheljuzhko, 1924.
Parnassius mnemosyne pfeifferi Bryk & Eisner, 1931: Turkey, Taurus. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne athene Stichel, 1906.
Parnassius mnemosyne parnassia Bryk, 1932: Greece, Parnassos. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne athene Stichel, 1906.
Parnassius mnemosyne taygetana Bryk & Eisner, 1939: Greece, Peloponnesus. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne athene Stichel, 1906.

E-Turkey, Iran:
Parnassius mnemosyne nubilosus Christoph, 1873: Turkey, SE-Anatolia. Subspecies.
Parnassius mnemosyne adolphi Bryk, 1911: Iran, Loristan. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne nubilosus Christoph, 1873.
Parnassius mnemosyne pseudonubilosus Bryk, 1912: Turkey, Anatolia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne nubilosus Christoph, 1873.
Parnassius mnemosyne elbursia Eisner, 1937: Iran, Alborz. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne adolphi Bryk, 1911 (Eisner, 1957b).
Parnassius mnemosyne farsica Bang-Haas, 1938: Iran, Fars. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne adolphi Bryk, 1911.
Parnassius mnemosyne subnubilosus Bryk, 1914: Turkey, E-Anatolia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne nubilosus Christoph, 1873.
Parnassius mnemosyne strix Bryk, 1914: Armenia; Russia, Wolga region [?]. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne nubilosus Christoph, 1873.
Parnassius mnemosyne elisabethae Bryk & Eisner, 1931: Armenia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne nubilosus Christoph, 1873.
Parnassius mnemosyne noacki Eisner, 1968: Turkey, E-Anatolia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne nubilosus Christoph, 1873.
Parnassius mnemosyne gavaruki Betti 1989: Turkey, E-Anatolia, Hakkari. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne nubilosus Christoph, 1873.
Parnassius mnemosyne relictelam Betti 1989: Turkey, Anatolia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne nubilosus Christoph, 1873.
Parnassius mnemosyne urartu Betti 1989: Turkey, NE-Anatolia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne nubilosus Christoph, 1873.

Central Asia:
Parnassius mnemosyne gigantea Staudinger, 1886: E-Uzbekistan. Subspecies.
Parnassius mnemosyne orientalis Verity, 1911: SE-Kazakhstan. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne gigantea Staudinger, 1886.
Parnassius mnemosyne danilovi Bang-Haas, 1934: Central Asia. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne gigantea Staudinger, 1886.
Parnassius mnemosyne valentinae Sheljuzhko, 1943: E-Uzbekistan. Junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne gigantea Staudinger, 1886.
Parnassius mnemosyne ochraceus Austaut, 1891: Tajikistan, Gissar. Subspecies or junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne gigantea Staudinger, 1886.
Parnassius mnemosyne falsa Pagenstecher, 1911: S-Kazakhstan. Subspecies or junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne gigantea Staudinger, 1886.
Parnassius mnemosyne problematica Bryk, 1912: Russia, Transcaspia. Subspecies ?.
Parnassius mnemosyne bucharana Bryk, 1912: Turkmenia, Sultan-Hazreth mountains. Subspecies ?.
Parnassius mnemosyne pythania Bryk, 1912: Kirghizia, Alai mountains. Subspecies ?.
Parnassius mnemosyne tadschikistana Bryk, 1932: Tadjikistan, Kuliab; Badakshan. Subspecies or junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne gigantea Staudinger, 1886.
Parnassius mnemosyne mneme Bryk & Eisner, 1932: Kirghizia, Naryn. Subspecies ?.
Parnassius mnemosyne sarafschana Bryk & Eisner, 1932: Uzbekhistan, Tadjikistan: Zarafshon. Subspecies or junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne gigantea Staudinger, 1886.
Parnassius mnemosyne tzvetajevi Eisner, 1974: Tajikistan, Peter the Great mountains. Subspecies or junior subjective synonym of Parnassius mnemosyne sarafschana Bryk & Eisner, 1932.
Parnassius mnemosyne kromeri Schröder, 1975: N-Afghanistan, Andarab. Subspecies ?.

Infrasubspecific taxa treated as subspecies by Waldeck 2006:
Parnassius mnemosyne f. anglardi Eisner, 1967: Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne f. discusapertus Eisner, 1963: Unavailable infrasubspecific name (Lukhtanov 2006).
Parnassius mnemosyne f. drueti Dufrane, 1946. Unavailable infrasubspecific name (Lukhtanov 2006).
Parnassius mnemosyne f. flavoocellata Bryk & Eisner, 1939: Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne f. flavocentrata Bryk & Eisner, 1934: Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne f. grundi Bryk & Eisner, 1932: Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne mesoleucus f. gynaecotropaintensa Eisner & Zelný, 1977. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne f. insulata Dannehl, 1933. Unavailable infrasubspecific name (Lukhtanov 2006).
Parnassius mnemosyne f. intermediatus Bryk & Eisner, 1931. Unavailable infrasubspecific name (Lukhtanov 2006).
Parnassius mnemosyne ceuzensis f. lentei Eisner, 1974: Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne f. lunulata Sheljuzhko, 1913: Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne var. melania Honrath, 1885: Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne f. nigrocostalis Eisner, 1954: Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius nivalis Groose-Smith, 1908. Infrasubspecific.
Parnassius mnemosyne f. postintercubitalis Bryk & Eisner, 1937. Unavailable infrasubspecific name (Lukhtanov 2006).
Parnassius mnemosyne hartmanni ab. praniessi Hoffmann, 1950. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne var. nubilosus f. pseudonubilosus Verity, [1911]. Turkey, Pontus mountains [loc. inc.]. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne f. radiomarginata Bryk & Eisner, 1931. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne f. siegeli Gonner, 1929: Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne var. nubilosus f. syra Verity, [1911]: Syria. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Parnassius mnemosyne f. umbratilis Gonner, 1929: Unavailable infrasubspecific name.

Nomina nuda:
Parnassius mnemosyne sheljuzhkoi Bryk, 1912. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne caucasica Bryk, 1914. Misspelling of Parnassius mnemosyne caucasia Verity, [1911]. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne antitauricus Bang-Haas, in litt. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne cassaensis Eisner, 1954: Misspelling of Parnassius mnemosyne kassaensis Bryk & Eisner, 1932. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne clunulata Waldeck, 2006: Misspelling of Parnassius mnemosyne f. lunulata Sheljuzhko, 1913 ?. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne culutensis Waldeck, 2006 nec Eisner & Krusek, 1983. Homonym of Parnassius nomion culutensis Eisner & Krusek, 1983. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne coreana Waldeck, 2006 nec Watari, 1934: Homonym of Parnassius coreana Watari, 1934 (= Parnassius stubbendorfii coreana Watari, 1934). Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne dejotaurus Waldeck, 2006: Misspelling of Parnassius mnemosyne dejotarus Fruhstorfer, 1919. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne honiana Waldeck, 2006 nec Hering, 1934. Homonym of Parnassius glacialis hoeniana Hering, 1934. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne litawicus Waldeck, 2006: Misspelling of Parnassius mnemosyne litavia Bryk, 1913. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne monulorensis Waldeck, 2006: Misspelling of Parnassius mnemosyne montdorensis Kolar, 1943. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne teleschensis Waldeck, 2006: Misspelling of Parnassius mnemosyne taleschensis Ebert, 1975. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne variabilis Waldeck, 2006 nec Stichel, 1906. Homonym of Parnassius jacquemontii variablis Stichel, 1906. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne ventidius Waldeck, 2006 nec Fruhstorfer, 1923. Homonym of Parnassius apollo ventidius Fruhstorfer, 1923. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne whyatti Waldeck, 2006: Misspelling of Archon apollinus wyatti Koçak, 1976 ?. Nomen nudum.
Parnassius mnemosyne var. geographische Waldeck, 2006 nec Dannehl, 1929. Lapsus calami [german expression].

Clouded Apollo
Le Semi-Apollon
Schwarzer Apollofalter, Schwarzer Apollo
Blanca de Asso

Habit:

P. mnemosyne mnemosyne f. borussianus: Lithuania P. mnemosyne mnemosyne f. borussianus: Lithuania P. mnemosyne mnemosyne f. hartmanni: Austria, Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, 600 m, 1976.07.01, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz P. mnemosyne athene f. sheljuzhkoi: Turkey
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P. mnemosyne gigantea: Kirghizia P. mnemosyne mnemosyne f. hartmanni, underside: Austria, Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, 600 m, 1976.07.01, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz    
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Description of adults: Examined: 1 . Wing expanse: 62 mm. Head small, black, eyes blackish brown; labial palpi very small, black; antennae only about 10 mm in length, black; body black, on the upperside with greyish-white, on the underside partly also with blackish, hair-like scaling; upperside of wings only sparsely scaled, yellowish-white; marginal area of forewing in a width of about 7 mm devoid of any scales, greyish; venation black; upperside of forewing with two prominent black spots in the middle and at the distal end of the discoidal cell; hindwing upperside with a dark grey scaling along the inner margin, about 3 mm in width, a dentoid projection of this scaling reaching the distal end of the discoidal cell; along the inner margin also a fine white, hair-like scaling; underside of both wings nearly devoid of any scaling, except for the two black spots on the forewing, otherwise glossy and hyaline yellowish.

Variability: On the forewing, an additional, elongate submarginal grey spot may be developed at the costa, which may extend fascia-like across the whole wing width to the inner margin. The marginal grey fascia may be speckled with 4-6 whitish spots between the veins, starting from the apex (ssp. athene Stichel, 1908). On the hindwing, the dark grey coloration along the inner margin may form a second inwardly directed dentoid projection close to the anal angle. Additional black spots may be developed at the distal end of the discoidal cell and in the middle of the anterior margin.

Distribution:

Although scattered in its range and often seldom and very local, the species is distributed throughout most European countries, except Iceland, the Britsh Isles, Portugal, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, the Tyrrhenian archipelago, Crete and Cyprus (Karsholt & Nieukerken 2011). Despite many named forms, all these populations are presently regarded to belong to the typical subspecies, except for southern Greece. Like the populations from southern Asia minor and the Levant, the southern Greek ones belong to ssp. athene (see Kurz & Kurz 2011). Furthermore, the species also occurs throughout Asia minor and Iran, as well as in the Ural mountains and throughout southern Siberia to central Asia (GBIF 2011) and northern Afghanistan. Vertically, records in Europe have been documented from 200 - 2100 m, exceptionally also 2300 m, although normally, the species seldom exceeds 1700 m a.s.l. (Kurz & Kurz 2011, Tolman & Lewington 1998). In the Alborz mountains in Iran, specimens have been found from 2800 - 3200 m a.s.l. (Eisner 1955), whereas in Tadjikistan and Afghanistan the species occurs even as high as 4000 m a.s.l. (Eisner 1959, Eisner & Naumann 1980).

Biology:

P. mnemosyne mnemosyne f. litavia: Lower Austria, Carpathians, Hundsheimer Berg, 2009.05.02 P. mnemosyne mnemosyne f. parvisi: Montenegro, Prokletije, Vusanje, 2011.06.13 P. mnemosyne mnemosyne f. leonhardiana: Montenegro, Golija, 2011.06.09 P. mnemosyne mnemosyne f. schawerdae: Marche, Ascoli Piceno, Monti Sibillini, Forca Canapine, 1500 m, 2005.06.22
Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Parnassius mnemosyne mnemosyne f. craspedontis: Russia, Wolga region, near Saratov, 2011.05.24 P. mnemosyne caucasia: Turkey, Rize, Çamlihemsin, 2010.07.01    
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Le.Loup.Gris (creative commons)
Detailed view
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The species inhabits clearings and outskirts of natural woodland, adjacent tall herb vegetation and pastures (Kurz & Kurz 2011), especially on places which are cool and moist during larval development. In Turkey, it has been found e.g. in mixed oak-beech-forests, black pine forests, steppe-forests, but also in depressions with long lasting snow layers or on moist broken stone ground (Hesselbarth et al. 1995). Only seldom, it can be found also in hot and dry areas near sea-level (Tolman & Lewington 1998). Habitats are often small, with an area of less than one hectare, where the imagines are very devotedly (Hesselbarth et al. 1995). Imagines are on the wing in one generation per year from late April till Mid August, depending on the altitude (Kurz & Kurz 2011, Hesselbarth et al. 1995). On a given place, the flightime last about four weeks, whereas the individual lifespan may vary from one to three weeks. Males appear some days earlier than females. In the morning, the animals have been observed sun-bathing with evenly spread wings. Otherwise, they fly in pure sunshine, hiding in the vegetation, in leaf litter or under stones during dull weather. Here, also the night is spent. The flight follows zic-zac-lines, where males are generally more active than females (Hesselbarth et al. 1995). Flushed animals show defensive behaviour. They spread their wings evenly, draw the forewings fitfully forwards and the hindwings backwards to the abdomen, scratching at the underside of the hindwings with the claws of the second and third pair of legs thus producing an audible rustling (Kudrna & Seufert 1991). Males patrol in the biotopes in the search for females, mainly in the afternoon. When besieged by males, females spread their wings and raise their abdomen or try to escape by flying a short distance.

The imagines have been found nectaring preferably on blue, violet, purple or red coloured blossoms, less frequently also on yellow ones. Documented nectar sources are Fabaceae (Trifolium pratense Vicia cracca, Galega officinalis), Rosaceae (Rosa), Lamiaceae (Acinos alpinus, Lamium maculatum, Ajuga), Caprifoliaceae (Knautia), Geraniaceae (Geranium), Asteraceae (Onopordum tauricum, Mulgedium [=Cicerbita], Crepis, Scorzonera, unidentified thistle) and Orchidaceae (Gymnadenia) (Koçak 1990, Hesselbarth et al. 1995, Kurz & Kurz 2011, Kurz M. A. unpublished results). While sucking, the wings are spread more or less evenly.

Stages in development:

   
Larva, feeding on Corydalis: Bavaria, Chiemgauer Alpen, 2009.06.12 Bavaria, Chiemgauer Alpen, 2009.06.12    
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Harald Süpfle (creative commons)
Detailed view
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Harald Süpfle (creative commons)
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Description of early stages following Forster & Wohlfahrt (1976), Hesselbarth et al. (1995) and Tolman & Lewington (1998).

Egg: The egg is yellowish-white, in lateral view semi-globular, with a granulouse sculpture. The underside is flattened, also the area around the pole. The micropyle consists of 5-7 drop-like elements and is surrounded by 2-3 fragmentary leaf-rosettes (Häuser et al. 1993). The surface of the egg is structured by a coarse network of prominent knots and less prominent broad connecting bars, thus embracing hole-like cavities. Eggs are usually laid singly nearby the remnants of the foodplants on rotten leaves, but also on stones and small rocks. Per female, about 80-100 eggs are deposited.

Larva: The larva usually overwinters in the egg and hatches in early spring. It runs quickly and persistent and can easily find the fresh foodplants. Fullfed, it is tapering to both ends, blackish with rows of yellow to orange spots along the sides and with short and fine bristles. Larvae feed on various species of Corydalis. In Europe, these are normally Corydalis solida, Corydalis cava and Corydalis intermedia. On Mount Olympos in Greece, C. densiflora might also be utilized. In cases, where two of these plants grow syntopically, usually only one of them is utilized. In Asia Minor and central Asia, the following species of Corydalis are suspect to being potential foodplants: C. alpestris, C. angustifolia, C. cava, C. caucasica, C. conorhiza, C. integra, C. rutifolia erdelii, C. rutifolia kurdica, C. sagittata and C. solida. On Mount Hermon in Israel, C. solida and C. rutifolia have been shown to be foodplants for the larvae. Usually, beggarly plants in sunny conditions are preferred. The larvae like sunny places, but avoid to much heat. For feeding and during rest, they sit on the underside of the leaves, whereas during cold and dull weather, they rest on the ground under rotten leaves or stones. The larvae moult four times. For pupation, they construct a loose cocoon on the ground between rotten leaves.

Pupa: The pupa is stout, ochreous with a whitish mist.

Anatomy:

   
genitalia, lateral view: Switzerland genitalia, tegumen and uncus, ventral view    
Picture from: © Higgins 1975, modified
Detailed view
Picture from: © Higgins 1975, modified
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genitalia. "Uncus absent; tegumen with deep posterior notch and lateral arms terminating in sharp points, a slender process arising from ventral surface on each side; valve vertical, wide, lacking harpe; saccus pyriform; penis as in P. apollo but more slender, straight, base bilobed in dorsal view" (Higgins 1975).

Diagnosis:

P. mnemosyne mnemosyne f. hartmanni: Austria, Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, 600 m, 1976.07.01, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz P. maharaja: without data, in coll. Ulster Museum P. hunnyngtoni: Tibet P. eversmanni felderi : without data
Picture from: Kurz Michael
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P. boedromius : Tianshan, Aksutal P. arctica : without data P. simonius : Transalai, in coll. Hill Museum P. glacialis , PARATYPE: Isizuchi, Shikoku, May 1935
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P. stubbendorfii , PARALECTOTYPE: Sibira orientalis, Schipka-Gora, 1907.08, leg. B.v. Bodemeyer A. crataegi : Austria, Salzburg, Thalgau, 600 m, 1976.06.26, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz    
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Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
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P. mnemosyne can easily be distinguished from most other species of Parnassius by the absence of any red or blue coloured spots on the wings. Parnassius maharaja Avinov, 1916, has an additional submarginal row of grey spots between the veins and a distinct, inwardly often lightened dark spot in the middle of the anterior margin of the hindwing. The wing margin of the hindwings is glassy grey like in the forewing. Parnassius hunnyngtoni Avinov, 1916, has a similar submarginal row of mostly triangulate grey spots on the hindwing upperside like P. maharaja, but has the marginal area of the hindwing upperside white. Males of Parnassius eversmanni felderi Bremer, 1861, show a postdiscal row of grey spots, often connected to a complete fascia on the forewing upperside, the black spots in the middle and at the end of the cell being grey instead of black. In Parnassius boedromius (Puengeler, 1901), fore- and hindwings show distinct and intensive white lunulae between the veins in the outer grey margin. Parnassius arctica (Eisner, 1968) misses a grey wing margin in the forewing of males, in females, the hindwing upperside is mostly dark greyish, except for the submarginal area. Parnassius simonius Staudinger, 1889, also has distinct white lunulae in the submarginal area of the forewing upperside, often connected to a continuous row and shows a row of grey spots in the submarginal area of the hindwing upperside. Parnassius stubbendorfii Ménétries, 1849 and Parnassius glacialis Butler, 1866 are easily distinguished further by the absence of the two black spots in the middle and at the end of the cell on the forewing upperside. The same feature applies to some species of Aporia, especially Aporia crataegi (Linné, 1758), which show an overall similarity to P. mnemosyne too.

Genetics:

Chromosome number (haploid): 29 (Federley 1938, determined from a Finnish specimen.)

Worth knowing:

Sources:

Betti, G. 1989. Contribution a la connaissance des Parnassius d´Anatolie ( Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Linneana Belgica 12 (2): 67-76, 3 figs.
Eisner, C. 1954. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 1). Parnassiana Nova I. Zoologische Mededelingen 6: 41-48.
Eisner, C. 1955. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 2). Parnassiana Nova IV. Zoologische Mededelingen 17: 127-156, pl. XXIII.
Eisner, C. 1957a. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 8). Parnassiana Nova XII. Zoologische Mededelingen 35: 33-49.
Eisner, C. 1957b. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 9). Parnassiana Nova XIV. Zoologische Mededelingen 35: 79-111, 1 pl.
Eisner, C. 1958. Varia. Parnassiana Nova XVIII. Zoologische Mededelingen 36: 1-3.
Eisner, C. 1959a. Kritische Revision der Gattungen Lingamius und Koramius (Fortsetzung 2). Parnassiana Nova XXIII. Zoologische Mededelingen 36 (19): 143-163.
Eisner, C. 1959b. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilia Parnassiinae. Parnassiana Nova XXVII. Zoologische Mededelingen 36 (20): 289-297.
Eisner, C. 1960. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilia Parnassiinae (Fortsetzung 1). Parnassiana Nova XXVIII. Zoologische Mededelingen 27 (3): 17-48.
Eisner, C. 1962. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilia Parnassiinae (Fortsetzung 5). Parnassiana Nova XXXII. Zoologische Mededelingen 38 (7): 105-128.
Eisner, C. 1963. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilia Parnassiinae (Fortsetzung 6). Parnassiana Nova XXXIII. Zoologische Mededelingen 38 (17): 281-294, 2 pls.
Eisner, C. 1966. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilia Parnassiinae (Fortsetzung 12). Parnassiana Nova XXXIX. Zoologische Mededelingen 41 (8): 143-149, 1 pl.
Eisner, C. 1968. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilia Parnassiinae (Fortsetzung 16). Parnassiana Nova XLIII. Zoologische Mededelingen 43 (2): 10-17, 2 pls.
Eisner, C. 1969. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilie Parnassiinae (Fortsetzung 17). Drei neue Subspecies. Parnassiana Nova XLIV. Zoologische Mededelingen 43 (14): 173-176.
Eisner, C. 1971. Nachträgliche Betrachtungen zu der Revision der Subfamilie Parnassiinae (Fortsetzung 19). Parnassiana Nova XLVI. Zoologische Mededelingen 45 (6): 87-90, 2 pls.
Eisner, C. 1974a. Neue Unterarten von Parnassius apollo L. und Parnassius mnemosyne L.. Parnassiana Nova XLVII. Zoologische Mededelingen 46 (20): 269-273, 2 pls.
Eisner, C. 1974b. Die Arten und Unterarten der Baroniidae, Teinopalpidae und Parnassiidae (erster Teil) (Lepidoptera). Parnassiana Nova XLIX. Zoologische Verhandelingen 135: 3-96.
Eisner, C. 1975. Neue Unterarten der Parnassiidae. Parnassiana Nova L. Zoologische Mededelingen 49 (8): 81-84, 1 pl.
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Kurz Michael: 2011.03.01
Kurz Michael: 2011.07.06
Kurz Michael: 2011.07.07
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Kurz Michael: 2011.07.20
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