N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Zerynthia (Zerynthia) rumina (Linné, 1758)

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Papilio Nymphalis rumina Linnaeus, 1758: 480.
Type locality: Europa australis [southern Europe]
Type: There seem to be no Linnean specimens that might serve as syntypes (Häuser et al. 2005).

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
The following list is based primarily on Häuser et al. (2005) and Savela (1015):

Pap.[ilio] N.[ymphalis] Phal.[eratus] Rumina alba Esper, 1794. Type locality: Hungary. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio polyxena [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775.
P.[apilio] Nymph.[alis] Phal.[eratus] Rumina australis Esper, 1781. Type locality: France, Languedoc. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio Nymphalis rumina Linné, 1758.
Papilio medesicaste Hoffmannsegg, 1803: 181. Type locality: Europe. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio Nymphalis rumina Linné, 1758.
Thais honnoratii Boisduval, 1832: 18, pl. 3, f. 3-5. Type locality: France. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio Nymphalis rumina Linné, 1758.
Zerynthia rumina ab. Canteneri Heydenreich, 1851: 16. Type locality: Not stated [North Africa]. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Thais rumina ab. Canteneri Staudinger, 1861: 1. Type locality: Not stated [Spain]. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Thais rumina var. Canteneri Felder & Felder, 1864: 330. Type locality: Algeria. Subspecies.
Thais rumina africana Stichel, 1907: 12. Type locality: Algeria, Morocco. Junior subjective synonym of Thais rumina var. Canteneri Felder & Felder, 1864.
Zerynthia rumina andalusiana Stichel, 1907. Type locality: Spain, Andalucia. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio Nymphalis rumina Linné, 1758.
Thais rumina var. ornatior Blachier, 1908: 211-212. Type locality: Morocco, Tanger, Mogador [Essaouira]. Junior subjective synonym of Thais rumina var. Canteneri Felder & Felder, 1864.
Thais rumina var. ornatior ab. ornatissima Blachier, 1908: 211-212. Type locality: Morocco. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Zerynthia rumina mauretanica Schultz, 1908: 267. Type locality: North Africa. Junior subjective synonym of Thais rumina var. Canteneri Felder & Felder, 1864.
Zerynthia rumina mauretantica ab. xanthe Schultz, 1908: 267. Type locality: Not stated [North Africa]. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Zerynthia rumina mauretantica ab. derubrescens Schultz, 1908: 267. Type locality: Not stated [North Africa]. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Zerynthia rumina var. medesicaste f. divisa Schultz, 1908: 268. Type locality: Not stated. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Zerynthia rumina var. mackeri Holl, 1910: 164. Type locality: Algeria. Junior subjective synonym of Thais rumina var. Canteneri Felder & Felder, 1864.
Thais rumina ab. nebulosa Holl, 1913: 6, pl. A, f. 5. Type locality: Algeria. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Thais rumina ab. irregularis Holl, 1913: 8, pl. A, f. 6. Type locality: Algeria, Hussein-Dey. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Thais rumina ab. nigricans Holl, 1913: 8, pl. A, f. 9. Type locality: Algeria, Hussein-Dey. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Zerynthia rumina mauretanica ab. distorta Rothschild, 1918: 75. Type locality: Tunisia, Ain Draham. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Thais rumina mauretanica ab. lucasi Rothschild, 1926: 128. Type locality: Morocco, Azrou, Ain Leuh. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Zerynthia rumina africana f. posteriorrubrosubmarginalis Eisner, 1962: 115. Type locality: Algeria. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Zerynthia rumina tarrieri Binagot und Lartigue, 1998. Type locality: south-west Morocco. Subspecies.

Taxonomic note: Heydenreich (1851) has described ab. Canteneri, which is an unavailable infrasubspecific name. Furthermore, no type loclity has been given. Staudinger (1861) too used the name in the rank of an unavailable infrasubspecific name and referred the name to Spanish specimens. Felder & Felder (1864) however, where the first who used the name Canteneri in the rank of a variety, which means as subspecies, and referred the name to Algerian specimens. Therefore, this is the oldest available name for North African populations. It should be said furthermore, that var. ornatior has been published by Blachier not in 1905, as often stated, but only in 1908.

Spanish Festoon
La Proserpine
Arlequin

Habit:

Z. rumins rumina : Spain, Andalucia, near Nerja, 2013.03.13, leg. Barz Michael, coll. Michael Kurz Z. rumins rumina : without data Z. rumina canteneri : Morocco Z. rumina tarrieri : Morocco
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Sarefo (creative commons), modified
Detailed view
Picture from: www.ebay.at: © galijotas
Detailed view
Picture from: www.ebay.at: © galijotas
Detailed view
     
Z. rumins rumina underside: Spain, Andalucia, near Nerja, 2013.03.13, leg. Barz Michael, coll. Michael Kurz      
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
     

Description of adults: Examined: 1 of the typical ssp. Wing expanse: 44 mm. Head with distant, hair-like scales, yellowish between antennae, black in face; eyes large, semiglobular; palpi directed ahead, black on upperside, laterally light yellow, terminal segment black; downwardly directed, shorter light yellow and long black hair-like scales; antennae about 2/5 of forewing length, black; thorax black, very scarcely covered with light brown, hair-like scales; forewing upperside ochreous with black-brown markings: In the cell, in total 5 broad cross-spots, the second and fourth one inwardly with a small carmine red spot; postdiscally, at costa a narrower, black-brown cross-spot with two to three small red spots; distad following two small windows, devoid of any scales; submarginally, a moderately broad, black-brown cross-fascia across the whole wing width, along veins connected with undulate black margin and thus embedding semilunatic, ochreous spots between veins; from center of inner margin a black-brown spot towards cell, along veins connected with submarginal fascia and cell spots and thus embedding several round spots in ground color; this spot centered by some red scales; in extension of the second cell spot (from basis) a moderately broad cross-spot, outwardly obligue towards inner margin; fringe black-brown around veins, ochreous between veins; hindwings on inner margin and in cell with larger, partly coalescent black-brown spots; postdiscally a row of smaller, black-brown spots between veins, the spot at anterior margin centered with carmine red; at outer margin, a black-brown cross-fascia, narrow at anterior margin, posteriorly very broad, inwardly irregular, outwardly undulating in projecting veins; within this fascia, close to outer margin, a delicate, ochreous, undulating line and submarginally with carmine red spots between veins from M1 to inner margin; basad of ochreous undulating line a delicate ochreous irroration; fringe ochreous between veins, black around veins and on inner margin; underside of forewing similar to upperside, but the carmine red spots significantly bigger; markings of hindwing underside also similar to upperside, but ground colour dirty white, black markings irrorated ochreous and red spots bordered white inwardly; two additional small red basal spots at anteroir margin and in cell; underside of thorax scarcely covered with dirty white hair-like scales, legs alike; abdomen black, scarcely covered by hair-like scales, upperside yellowish, underside dirty white; a subdorsal row of one brick-red spot per segment on each side, accompanied by a subventral row of white, partly fused spots.

Variability: Most specimens from Northern Africa are somewhat larger, with larger black markings and reduced red spots in the cell of the forewing upperside. They are normally regarded to be a separate subspecies (Zerynthia (Zerynthia) rumina canteneri (Felder & Felder, 1864)). Animals from central Morocco however, closer resemble the typical form again and have been described as Zerynthia rumina tarrieri Binagot und Lartigue, 1998. All other mentioned forms are probably infrasubspecific only.

Distribution:

The species is said to occur in North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia), Portugal, Spain and southern France (Häuser 2006, De Prins 2004). The vertical distribution reaches from sea level up to about 1500 m on the Iberian Peninsula and up to 2100 m in North Africa, although the animals only rarely exceed 1000 m (Higgins & Riley 1978, Tolman & Lewington 1998).

Biology:

 
Z. rumina rumina: Spain, Badajoz, Mayorga evergreen oak woods, 2007.03.18 the same butterfly Z. rumina canteneri: Morocco, Ifrane  
Picture from: wikimedia commons: M. del Mar Paredes Mana
Detailed view
Picture from: wikimedia commons: M. del Mar Paredes Mana
Detailed view
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Tarrier Michel (GNU Free Documentation license)
Detailed view
 

Hot and dry meadows, rich in flowers and with some shrubs, are the preferred biotopes for this species. The animals also tolerate adjacent cultivated areas. Normally, they are on the wing in one generation from the end of February till July, with a maximum from the end of March till May. A second generation shall occur in southern Spain and North Africa with imagines flying from August till October (Tolman & Lewington 1998).

Stages in development:

 
Eggs on Aristolochia pistolochia: France Young larva: Spain, Andalucia, near Almeria Fullfed larva: Spain, Andalucia, near Almeria, 2005.05.15  
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Jean-Laurent Hentz (CC-BY-SA-3.0)
Detailed view
Picture from: www.flickr.com: © Pedro Requenza Dias
Detailed view
Picture from: www.flickr.com: © Pedro Requenza Dias
Detailed view
 

Egg. The eggs are deposited singly or in small groups on the leaves of the foodplants. They are globular, with a smooth surface and a light brownish-green colouration.

Larva. The larvae are light brownish-green with black longitudinal streacks on each segment and long pegs with black thorns, the pegs being orange-brown on the thoracic segments. They feed on Aristolochia pistolochia, Aristolochia rotunda, Aristolochia baetica, Aristolochia paucinervis, Aristolochia fontanesii, Aritsolochia rotunda and, maybe also Aristolochia pallida (Tolman & Lewington, 1998).

Pupa. The pupa hibernates.

Anatomy:

 
-genitalia, dorsal view, penis and right valve removed: Southern France -genitalia, uncus and tegumen enlarged: Southern France -genitalia, valve: Southern France  
Picture from: © Higgins 1975, modified
Detailed view
Picture from: © Higgins 1975, modified
Detailed view
Picture from: © Higgins 1975, modified
Detailed view
 

Genitalia. "Like Z. polyxena but tegumen narrower; valve shorter, costal border irregular, apex pointed, harpe shorter, arising near apex; penis as in Z. polyxena" (Higgins 1975).

Diagnosis:

Z. rumina : without data Z. polyxena : without data Z. rumina -genitalia, valve: Southern France Z. polyxena polyxena -genitalia, valve: Montenegro
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Sarefo (creative commons), modified
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: © Higgins 1975, modified
Detailed view
Picture from: © Higgins 1975, modified
Detailed view
     
Z. polyxena cassandra -genitalia, valve: Southern France      
Picture from: © Higgins 1975, modified
Detailed view
     

From the similar Zerynthia polyxena ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775), which is sympatric in southern France, Z. rumina is readily distinguished by the presenece of several red spots on the forewing upperside.

In the -genitalia, the anterior margin of the valve is irregularly dentated in Z. polyxena, whereas in Z. rumina it is deeply indentated (Higgins, 1975).

Genetics:

Chromosome number (haploid): unknown (Higgins, 1975).

Worth knowing:

Sources:

Blachier, Ch. 1908. Lepidopteres du Maroc. Annales de la Société entomologique de France. 77 (2): 209-222, 1 pl.
De Prins, W. 2004. Papilionidae. In - Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken (eds.). Lepidoptera, Moths. – Fauna Europaea version 1.1, http://www.faunaeur.org [online 2008.07.29].
Felder, C. & R. Felder 1864. Species Lepidopterorum hucusque descriptae vel iconibus expressae in seriem systematicam digestae. Verhandlungen der zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft Wien XIV: 289-378.
Häuser, C. 2006. Papilionidae. In: Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., van Hertum J., eds. (2008). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist. Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2008/. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Häuser, C. L., J. Holstein & A. Steiner 2005. The Global Butterfly Information System. http://www.globis.insects-online.de. Last updated 14.04.2011 [online 2015.03.02].
Heydenreich, G. H. 1851. Lepidopterorum Europaeorum catalogus methodicus. Systematisches Verzeichniss der Europaeischen Schmetterlinge. J. Klinkhardt, Leipzig. [2] + 131 + [2] pp.
Higgins, L. 1975. The Classification of European Butterflies, Collins, London.
Higgins L.G. & N.D. Riley 1978. Die Tagfalter Europas und Nordwestafrikas, übersetzt von W. Forster, 2. Auflage, Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg und Berlin.
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae, Ed. X. (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.) Holmiae. Systema Nat. ed. 10 i-ii + 1-824.
Savela, M. 2015. Lepidoptera and some other life forms. Zerynthia Ochsenheimer, 1816. - available at: http://ftp.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/insecta/lepidoptera/ditrysia/papilionoidea/papilionidae/parnassiinae/zerynthia/ [online 2015.12.22].
Staudinger, O. 1861. Macrolepidoptera. in Staudinger, O. & M. Wocke, Catalog der Lepidopteren Europa´s und der angrenzenden Länder. Dresden. 1-84.
Tolman T. & R. Lewington 1998. Die Tagfalter Europas und Nordwestafrikas, übersetzt von M. Nuß, Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co., Stuttgart.

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2008.08.07
Kurz Michael: 2008.08.14
Kurz Michael: 2013.01.23
Kurz Michael: 2015.03.02
Kurz Michael: 2015.12.21
Kurz Michael: 2015.12.29
Kurz Michael: 2016.02.05
Kurz Michael: 2016.02.16
Document reviewed by:
not reviewed: 2016.02.16
Document released by:
Kurz Michael: 2016.02.16

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