N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Incurvaria pectinea Haworth, 1828

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Incurvaria pectinea Haworth, 1828: 559
Type locality: Great Britain
Type: Not designated; syntypes probably in coll. NHM, London

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
Tinea zinckenii Zeller, 1839: 183: Junior subjective synonym

Habit:

 
: Veneto, Verona, Monte Baldo, Ferrara di Monte Baldo, 1963.05, leg. Wolfsberger J., coll. Michael Kurz : Italia, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Alpi Carniche, Mt. Crostis, 1900 m, 2005.06.02, leg. Morin Lucio, coll. Museo Friulano : Veneto, near Garda, 1994.03.26, leg. Hausenblas, Zeller, M.E. & M.A. Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz  
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 

Description of adults: Examined: 1 , 1 . Forewing length: 6.4 mm, 5.8 mm. Vertex and frons distantly scaled, with hair-like scales, dirty ochreous yellow to umber brown, mixed with single beige scales; diameter of eyes 0.4 mm (), respectively, 0.3 mm () of forewing length; labial palpi short, about 1.5 times the diameter of an eye, diverging, with a sharp-tiped distal segment, with mixed umber brown and beige scales; antennae of male about 2/3 of forewing length, pectinate, the teeth flat, like distally bent lamellae, up to 0.45 mm long, with brown scales; antennae of female simple, slightly more than 1/2, the antennal segments each with one half beige and the other half with a distally diverging fan of brown scales; thorax and tegulae umber brown; forewings elongate, narrow, brown, more or less shining bronzy golden; markings often indistinct, sometimes nearly missing; in the middle of the inner margin a nearly triangular, yellowish white spot, its tip reaching nearly across half of the wing width; a similar, but distinctly smaller spot at the inner margin, basally of the tornus, somewhat emanating into the fringe; fringe constisting of two distinct rows of scales, both just like the ground colour; at the tornus an indistinct streak lightened whitish; hindwing with very narrow, hair-like scales, leaving most of the wing membrane uncovered, greyish brown, intensively shining bronzy golden to coppery; costa of hindwing yellowish white from base to 2/3; fringe brown, bronzy golden shining; underside similar to upperside, at the forewing basally of the discus with very narrow, hair-like scales, light spots of upperside indistinct; costa from 3/4 to apex yellowish orange; underside of hindwing also with narrow, hair-like scales, indistinct whitish at the outer and inner margin; in the male, the wing margins bordered yellowish to yellowish orange; legs light brown to brown, shining, in the male tarsi ringed light and dark; foretibia without epiphysis; midtibia with a pair of spurs at the distal end; hindtibia with a pair of spurs each at 0.55 - 0.6 of the tibial length and at the distal end; both pairs of spurs beige; Abdomen black-brown, bronzy golden shining.

Distribution:

I. pectinea has been recorded from Spain and the British Isles throughout central Europe und Fennoscandia to European Russia, in the south to Italy and most of the Balkan peninsula. No data are available from Portugal, the big Mediterranean Islands, Greece, Ukraine and southern Russia (Karsholt & Nieukerken 2004). In Asia, the species is known from the western Siberian lowlands and from the Altai mountains (Heath & Pelham-Clinton 1983, Dubatolov 2009). Few available data about vertical distribution indicate an occurence of the species from near sea level to at least 1100 m a.s.l. (Kurz et al. 2009).

Biology:

I. pectinea inhabits edges and clearings of deciduous wood- and bushland. Following Heath & Pelham-Clinton (1983), the presence of birch is strongly preferred. The imagines are on the wing in April and May (Kurz et al. 2009).

Stages in development:

     
Young larvae cutting out bags from a leaf: Carinthia, Görtschitz valley, Hüttenberg, 2016.05.26      
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
     

Morphology of preimaginal stages (Heath & Pelham-Clinton 1983).

Egg. The eggs are laid mostly in small groups onto the leafs of Betula and Corylus avellana Linné, allegedly also on Alnus, Malus (Saalas 1935), as well as Acer, Carpinus, Prunus, Pyrus, Sorbus and Cornus (Hering 1957).

Larva. The larva is whitish with yellowish brown head. The thoracic tergites are ochreous grey. When young (in May or early June), the larva mines in the leafs, creating small, roundish mines. Later, the larva cuts out a small piece of leaf, leaving a small round hole in the leaf and forms a flat case from the pieces. At that time, the mined leafs are very conspicious. The larvae then drop to the ground, feeding on fallen leafs by again cutting out a piece of leaf and attaching it to one side of the case. Sometimes, also green leafs from various herbaceous plants are feed. In August or early September, the cases are attached to a vertical area, often to the basis of a tree trunk. Here, also pupation takes place.

Pupa. The pupa hibernates in the case.

Anatomy:

genitalia, prep.-no. 585, M. Kurz: Veneto, Verona, Monte Baldo, Ferrara di Monte Baldo, 1963.05, leg. J. Wolfsberger, coll. Michael Kurz genitalia in higher magnification, prep.-no. 585, M. Kurz: Veneto, Verona, Monte Baldo, Ferrara di Monte Baldo, 1963.05, leg. J. Wolfsberger, coll. Michael Kurz genitalia, aedeagus, prep.-no. 585, M. Kurz: Veneto, Verona, Monte Baldo, Ferrara di Monte Baldo, 1963.05, leg. J. Wolfsberger, coll. Michael Kurz -genitalia, prep.-no. 660, M. Kurz: Veneto, near Garda, 1994.03.26, leg. HZK, coll. Michael Kurz
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 
genitalia, prep.-no. 587, M. Kurz: Veneto, Verona, Monte Baldo, 1968.04.26, leg. J. Wolfsberger, coll. Haus der Natur, Salzburg genitalia, tip of ovipositor, prep.-no. 587, M. Kurz: Veneto, Verona, Monte Baldo, 1968.04.26, leg. J. Wolfsberger, coll. Haus der Natur, Salzburg -genitalia, tip of ovipositor, prep.-no. 660, M. Kurz: Veneto, near Garda, 1994.03.26, leg. HZK, coll. Michael Kurz  
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 

Diagnosis:

From most similar species, I. pectinea can readily be distinguished by the hair-like scales on the hindwing upperside, leaving most of the wing membrane uncovered, as well as by the pectinate antennae of the males. Incurvaria masculella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775), having also males with pectinate antennae, is normally slightly larger, the forewings being darker brown with a conspious violet to blueish shimmer. The scales on the hindwing upperside are more lanceolate in that species, not so hair-like than in I. pectinea.

Worth knowing:

Sources:

Dubatolov, V. V. 2009. Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum: Incurvariidae. http://szmn.sbras.ru/Lepidop/Incurvar.htm [online 15 September 2009].
Haworth, A. H. 1828. Lepidoptera Britannica, sistens digestionem novam insectorum lepidopterorum quae in Magna Britannia reperiuntur, lavarum pabulo, temporeque pascendi; expansione alarum; mensibusque volandi; synonymis atque locis observationibusque variis. Part 4. Londini, pp. 513–609.
Heath, J. & E. C. Pelham-Clinton 1983. Incurvariidae. In J. Heath (ed.): The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 1, Harley Books.
Hering, E. M. 1957. Bestimmungstabellen der Blattminen von Europa, 3 Bde., Uitgeverij Dr. W. Junck, ´s-Gravenhage
Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken 2004. Incurvariidae. In - Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken (eds.). Lepidoptera, Moths. – Fauna Europaea version 1.1, http://www.faunaeur.org [online 7 March 2008].
Kurz, M. A., M. E. Kurz & H. C. Zeller-Lukashort 2000–2009. Naturkundliches Informationssystem. – URL: http://www.nkis.info [online 15 September 2009].
Saalas, U. 1935. Über Incurvaria pectinea Hw. (Lep., Incurvariidae); Suomen hyönt. Aikak, 1: 113 - 137
Zeller, P. C. 1839. Versuch einer naturgemäßen Eintheilung der Schaben. – Isis, Leipzig [32]: 167–219.

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2009.09.23
Kurz Michael: 2010.01.06
Kurz Michael: 2015.04.16
Kurz Michael: 2015.05.03
Kurz Michael: 2016.07.01
Kurz Michael: 2018.10.09
Kurz Michael: 2018.10.10
Kurz Michael: 2018.11.02
not reviewed

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