N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Incurvaria masculella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Tinea masculella [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775: 143
Type locality: Austria, near Vienna
Type: destroyed in the Hofburg fire in 1848 (anonymous 2009b)

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
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Habit:

   
: Croatia, Dalmatia, near Dubrovnik, street from Trsteno to Majkovi, 2003.05.03, leg. Christof Zeller & Michael Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz : Salzburg, Osterhorn group, Thalgau, location 12/2, 1988.05.13, coll. Michael Kurz    
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
   

Description of adults: Examined: 14 , 8 . Forewing length: 6.0 - 6.9 mm, 6.7 - 7.9 mm. Frons roughly scaled, dark yellow to beige; vestiture of hair-like scales on the head dark yellow to beige, above the eyes and between the antennae more or less rusty yellow to brownish; labial palpi 0.6 - 0.75 mm long, with appressed scales, beige, diverging towards the distal end; eyes of oval shape, 0.35 - 0.4 mm in diameter; ocelli missing; antennae of male about 9/10 of forewing length, pectinate; the teeth band-like, flat, about 0.1 mm in width and 0.5 mm long, the distal ends in adjoining waves; antennae with appressed scales, beige, brownish golden shining; antennae of female about 2/3 of forewing length, simple, the antennal segments beige basally, golden brown shining distally; thorax and tegulae dark golden brown shining; forewings also dark golden brown shining, partly with violet to blueish reflections and whitish shining markings: Slightly basally of the middle, a big, more or less triangular spot at the inner margin, broad at the inner margin, its tip reaching across more than half of the wing width; basally of the tornus a smaller and less broad, aslo triangular spot at the inner margin, emanating into the fringe; at about 0.55 of the forewing length, mostly a small, roundish costal spot (sometimes missing), distad of this spot single, whitish scales along the costa; fringe consisting of two distinct rows of scales, both of them just like the ground colour, bronzy golden shinig; hindwings with lanceolate scales, leaving parts of the wing membrane uncovered; hindwings in colouration similar to the forewings, but without violet shimmer; fringe just like so; a fringe-line is not distinctly developed; underside similar to the upperside, the spot at the inner margin only weakly developed, the tornal spot distinct, but smaller than on the upperside; fringe of both fore- and hindwings basally whitish lightend, especially at the apex and along the outer margin; legs mixed beige and golden brown shining; foretibia without epiphysis; midtibia with a pair of spurs at the distal end; hindtibia with a pair of spurs each at about 0.55 of the tibial length and at the distal end; abdomen brown.

Distribution:

Following Karsholt & Nieukerken (2004), the species has been found throughout Europe, its distribution range reaching from the Iberian peninsula and the British Isles to Scandinavia, eastwards to Russia and in the southeast throughout the Balkan peninsula to the European part of Turkey. It has been found on Corse, but so far no records have been published from Sardinia and Sicily. Also in the Siberian Zoological Museum, no specimens from Asia are kept (Dubatolov, 2009). Few data are available only about the vertical distribution of the species. These data at least indicate its presence from the planar to the montane level (Kurz et al., 2009).

Biology:

 
: Salzburg, Flachgau, near Berndorf : Belgium, High Ardennes, Commanster, 2006.05.12 : Belgium, High Ardennes, Commanster, 2006.06.07  
Picture from: © Dürregger Alexander
Detailed view
Picture from: wikimedia commons: James K. Lindsey
Detailed view
Picture from: wikimedia commons: James K. Lindsey
Detailed view
 

I. masculella inhabits richly structured edges and clearings of deciduous wood- and bushland. It can be found also in gallery forests along brooks and rivers (Kurz et al., 2009). The imagines are on the wing in one generation from late April till early June (Kurz et al., 2009).

Stages in development:

Larva. The larva is dirty whitish, the head is light brown, two dark spots are found on the back of the first segment. The 12th segment bears a hump. When young, the larvae mine in leaves of Quercus and Castanea, later they live on the ground in flat cases (Meeß 1910).

Anatomy:

-genitalia, prep.-no. 624, M. Kurz: Umbria, near Foligno, Sellano, 1993.05.17, leg. HZK, coll. Michael Kurz genitalia, prep.-no. 588, M. Kurz: Burgenland, Breitenbrunn, 1978.04.26, leg. F. Mairhuber, coll. Haus der Natur, Salzburg genitalia, tip of ovipositor, prep.-no. 588, M. Kurz: Burgenland, Breitenbrunn, 1978.04.26, leg. F. Mairhuber, coll. Haus der Natur, Salzburg -genitalia, tip of ovipositor, prep.-no. 538, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, 1988.05.13, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
   
genitalia, prep.-no. 548, M. Kurz: Slovenia, Karawanken, Kranj, between Bistrica and Trzic, 1992.05.06, leg. Kurz & Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz -genitalia, tip of ovipositor, prep.-no. 624, M. Kurz: Umbria, near Foligno, Sellano, 1993.05.17, leg. HZK, coll. Michael Kurz    
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
   

Diagnosis:

Externally very similar is Incurvaria oehlmanniella (Hübner, 1796), although males can be readily distinguisged by the simple, not pectinate antennae, both sexes also by the broad scales on the hindwing upperside, covering the wing membrane completely. These scales are lanceolate in I. masculella, leaving significant parts of the wing membrane uncovered. The costal spot in I. oehlmanniella is located at nearly 4/5, which is distally of the tornal spot, whereas in I. masculella this spot is basally of the tornal spot, nearly in the middle of the costa. Very similar too is Incurvaria pectinea Haworth, 1828, which has also males with pectinate antennae. This species is normally somewhat smaller in forewing length, the forewings being distinctly lighter, of bronzy colour. The scales on the hindwings are even narrower than in I. masculella, being of hair-like appearance. Incurvaria takeuchii Issiki, 1957 from Japan, another species with males having pectinate antennae, completely misses big whitish spots on the forewings, but has a reticulate pattern.

Worth knowing:

Sources:

anonymous 2009b. Das Naturhistorische Museum Wien. Forschung. 2. Zoologische Abteilung (Entomologie). Geschichte. URL: http://http://www.nhm-wien.ac.at/Content.Node/forschung/2zoo/geschichte.html [onlinen 15 September 2009].
Denis, M. & I. Schiffermüller 1775. Ankündigung eines systematischen Werkes von den Schmetterlingen der Wienergegend, herausgegeben von einigen Lehrern am K.K. Theresianum. Augustin Bernardi, Wien. 322 pp.
Dubatolov, V. V. 2009. Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum: Incurvariidae. http://szmn.sbras.ru/Lepidop/Incurvar.htm [online 15 September 2009].
Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken 2004. Incurvariidae. In - Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken (eds.). Lepidoptera, Moths. – Fauna Europaea version 1.1, http://www.faunaeur.org [online 7 March 2009].
Kurz, M. A., M. E. Kurz & H. C. Zeller-Lukashort 2000–2009. Naturkundliches Informationssystem. – URL: http://www.nkis.info [online 18 September 2009].
Meeß, A. 1910. Tineides aculeatae. - in A. Spuler: Die Schmetterlinge Europas, Kleinschmetterlinge; unveränderter Nachdruck der S. 188-523 und der Tafeln 81-91, Verlag E.Bauer, Keltern, 1983.

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2008.03.23
Kurz Michael: 2009.09.22
Kurz Michael: 2010.01.06
Kurz Michael: 2010.06.28
Kurz Michael: 2015.05.03
Kurz Michael: 2016.05.01
Kurz Michael: 2018.09.20
Kurz Michael: 2018.10.08
Kurz Michael: 2018.10.10
Kurz Michael: 2018.11.02
not reviewed

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