N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Incurvaria praelatella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Tinea praelatella [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775: 320
Type locality: Austria, near Vienna
Type: destroyed in the Hofburg fire in 1848 (anonymous 2009b)

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
---

Habit:

   
: Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, Schober, 1988.06.17, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz : Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, location 8/5, 1990.09.28 e.l. 1991.06.12.06, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz    
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
   

Description of adults:
Examined: 2 , 1 . Forewing length: 5.0 - 5.3 mm, 5.0 mm. Head brown; frons distantly scaled with hair-like scales; vestiture of hair-like scales on the head beige to light brownish, towards the thorax and around the eyes brownish; labial palpi thin, about 0.4 mm long, beige, smoothly scaled and diverging towards the apex; eyes about 0.25 - 0.3 mm in diameter; distance of eyes about 1.5 times the diameter of an eye (frontal); ocelli missing; antennae about 3/5 (male), respectively, 1/2 (female) of forewing length, filiform, smoothly scaled, beige to brown, coppery shining, with fine cilia; thorax brown with ore-like shimmer to dark violet-brown; tegulae of the same colouration; forewings dark brown, bronzy golden shing and with slight violet reflections to dark violet-brown, with witish to slightly yellowish, shining markings: At about 2/5 a narrow, slightly outwardly oblique fascia across the whole wing width, slightly beyond the middle towards the costal margin constricted or completely interrupted, at the inner margin sometimes distinctly enlarged and slightly bent outwards medially; at 3/5 sometimes a small costal spot (may be asymmetrically developed on both wings); at 4/5 a moderately broad, roundish to triangular costal spot, reaching with its tip across about 1/3 of the wing width; opposite to this spot, slightly dislocated towards the basis a similar, triangular spot at the tornus, emanating into the tornal fringe; fringe composed of two rows of scales, the proximal row dark brown, shining, the distal one sharply defined, whitish, except a short portion anterior to the tornal spot (here brownish, shining too); hindwings with broad scales, completely covering the wing membrane, brownish grey with coppery to violet shimmer; costal margin whitish from the basis slightly beyond 1/2; a delicate, violet-brown, shining fringe-line along the outer margin; fringe just like the ground colour, bronzy golden shining; underside of both wing pairs dark brown to violet-brown, intensely shining coppery to violet, nearly devoid of any markings, but white markings of upperside weakly shining through; fringe just like on the upperside; legs beige on the underside, dark brown on the upperside, coppery shinig; foretibia without an epiphysis; midtibia with a pair of spurs at the distal end; hindtibia with long, hair-like scales and a pair of spurs at about 3/5 of its length and at the distal end; abdomen brown.

Distribution:

I. praelatella is probabely distributed throughout the northern palaearctic region from Europe to Japan, although no specimens are kept in the Siberian zoological museum (anonymous 2009a, Dubatolov 2009, Karsholt & Nieukerken 2004). Following Heath & Pelham-Clinton (1983) on the other hand, the eastern range of the distribution is limited by the Ural mountains. In Europe, the species is known from the British Isles and from France throughout central Europe to Scandinavia and European Russia. It has also been recorded from Italy and the northern Balkans, whereas from the southern and eastern Balkans, from Ukraine, southern Russia, the Iberian peninsula and the large Mediterranean islands no records are available (Karsholt & Nieukerken 2004). Vertically, the species is distributed from at least the colline level up to 1250 m a.s.l. (Kurz et al. 2009).

Biology:

The species inhabits moist and shady places on richly structered clearings and edges of woods and bushland, as well as clear-cuttings rich in tall herb vegetation and shrubs, where the foodplant of the larva, Fragaria vesca, grows in abundance (Kurz et al. 2009). The imagines are on the wing from late May till early August. The larvae feed from July till October. After hibernation, they feed again till April when they pupate (Kurz et al. 2009).

Stages in development:

traces of feeding on Fragariua vesca: Bayern, Berchtesgadener Land, from Hammerstiel to the summit of the Grünstein, 2005.10.10 the larva beneath a piece of leaf: Bayern, Berchtesgadener Land, from Hammerstiel to the summit of the Grünstein, 2005.10.10 the same larva: Bayern, Berchtesgadener Land, from Hammerstiel to the summit of the Grünstein, 2005.10.10
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
     
larval case with exuvia of the pupa (): Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, location 8/5, 1990.09.28 e.l. 1991.12.06, coll. Michael Kurz      
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
     

Egg. According to Heath & Pelham-Clinton (1983), the egg is deposited at the leaf margin of Fragaria vesca, possibly also on other Fragaria-species and even on other herbaceous Rosaceae.

Larva. In the first instar, in June and July, the larva lives in an irregular, blotch-like mine of about 5 - 7 mm in diameter in the leaf of Fragaria vesca. In this stage, the larva is whitish with dark head, lying in the mine in a curved position. At the end of July or early August the larvae, now with a length of about 2 mm, leave the mine and cut out small pieces of tissue from the epidermis under which they hide. In the following days, they cut out further pieces from the leaf, partly also green ones (with a diameter up to 5 mm and of irregular shape) and build a flat case from them by spinning them ontop without distorting them. The green parts are subsequently fed now, their fibrous rest are spun together to form a flat case (about 1 mm in height) of oval shape (about 5 x 3 mm). On both ends, this case has broad slits, giving much liberty of action to the larva without the necessity of leaving the case. Both ends of the case are utilized. In this stage, the larvae have a length of about 4 mm. They are slender, translucent dirty white with shining black head and prothoracic plate. Consequently, new pieces of leaf are cut off from the margin or the tip of strawberry-leaves and attached to the case, thus forming a "sandwich" of strawberry-leaf, case and attached piece of leaf, the latter being mostly bigger than the case. The larvae seem to feed exclusively on the cut-off pieces of leaf, always utilizing the fibrous rests in order to enlarge the case by spinning them together. The semicircular action radius from both slits at the end of the case leads to a characteristic shape of it being rounded at the ends and constricted in the middle. The colour of the case is light greyish brown, its surface fibrous. In October, the larvae stop feeding and drop to the ground with their cases, where they hibernate. In March, they start feeding again in the same manner. At the end of April or early May, the larvae are full-fed and pupate within their cases on the ground or between moss. At this stage, the case is about 8 mm long and 4.5 mm broad.

Pupa. The pupa is light brown. Immediately before hatching, the pupa pushes itself outside the case with its anterior half.

Anatomy:

-genitalia, prep.-no. 797, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Flachgau, Hallwang, Söllheim, 1971.07.26, leg. F. Mairhuber, coll. Haus der Natur, Salzburg -genitalia, aedeagus, prep.-no. 797, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Flachgau, Hallwang, Söllheim, 1971.07.26, leg. F. Mairhuber, coll. Haus der Natur, Salzburg -genitalia, prep.-no. 592, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Flachgau, Hallwang, Söllheim, 1964.08.24, leg. Fritz Mairhuber, coll. Haus der Natur, Salzburg -genitalia in higher magnification, prep.-no. 592, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Flachgau, Hallwang, Söllheim, 1964.08.24, leg. Fritz Mairhuber, coll. Haus der Natur, Salzburg
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
     
-genitalia, aedeagus, prep.-no. 592, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Flachgau, Hallwang, Söllheim, 1964.08.24, leg. Fritz Mairhuber, coll. Haus der Natur, Salzburg      
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
     

Diagnosis:

 
: Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, location 8/5, 1990.09.28 e.l. 1991.12.06, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz Lampronia luzella (Hübner, [1817]) : Salzburg, Kitzbühler Alpen, upper Saalach valley, near Saalbach, Hinterglemm, 1968.06.19, leg. Mairhuber Fritz, coll. Michael Kurz Lampronia capitella (Clerck, 1759) : Northern Bavaria, Höllental, 650 m, 1973.05.05, leg. Zürnbauer, coll. Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum  
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 

From all other species of Incurvaria, I. praelatella is readily distinguished by its more or less complete inner fascia and by the colour of its fringe on the forewings, which is brown proximally and white distally. Nevertheless, very similar externally are Lampronia luzella (Hübner, [1817]) and Lampronia capitella (Clerck, 1759), respectively. In L. luzella, the inner fascia is straighter and more outwardly oblique towards the costal margin. The outer spots are more yellowish, often somewhat bigger than in I. praelatella, more elongate and often somewhat irregular in shape. Distad of these spots, sometimes a second small spot can be found at the costal margin. L. capitella normally is distinctly larger than I. praelatella, mostly lighter in ground colour, the inner fascia being broader, the outer spots distinctly larger. The latter are more precisely opposite to each other and often they nearly touch each other at their tips, whereas in I. praelatella these spots are dislocated against each other, their tips being distinctly apart from each other. Both Lampronia-species bear an epiphysis on the foretibia, which is missing in I. praelatella. In the male genitalia, the differences are pronounced too, in the female genitalia both Lampronia-species show two star-like signa in the bursa copulatrix, which are completely missing in I. praelatella.

Worth knowing:

Sources:

anonymous 2009a. An Identification Guide of Japanese Moths Compiled by Everyone. URL: http://www.jpmoth.org [online 15 September 2009].
anonymous 2009b. Das Naturhistorische Museum Wien. Forschung. 2. Zoologische Abteilung (Entomologie). Geschichte. URL: http://http://www.nhm-wien.ac.at/Content.Node/forschung/2zoo/geschichte.html [online 15 September 2009].
Denis, M. & I. Schiffermüller 1775. Ankündigung eines systematischen Werkes von den Schmetterlingen der Wienergegend, herausgegeben von einigen Lehrern am K.K. Theresianum. Augustin Bernardi, Wien. 322 pp.
Dubatolov, V. V. 2009. Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum: Incurvariidae. http://szmn.sbras.ru/Lepidop/Incurvar.htm [online 15 September, 2009].
Heath, J. & E. C. Pelham-Clinton 1983. Incurvariidae. In J. Heath (ed.): The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol.I: Micropterigidae – Heliozelidae. – Harley Books, Martins, Great Horkesley, Colchester, Essex.
Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken 2004. Incurvariidae. In - Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken (eds.). Lepidoptera, Moths. – Fauna Europaea version 1.1, http://www.faunaeur.org [online 7 March 2008].
Kurz, M. A., M. E. Kurz & H. C. Zeller-Lukashort 2000–2009. Naturkundliches Informationssystem. – URL: http://www.nkis.info [online 15 September 2009].

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2009.09.15
Kurz Michael: 2009.10.09
Kurz Michael: 2010.01.09
Kurz Michael: 2010.06.28
Kurz Michael: 2012.11.22
Kurz Michael: 2018.10.31
not reviewed

Advertisement: