Type: Prodoxus Riley, 1880: 155-156.|
The taxon Prodoxinae has a primarily holarctic distribution (Nielsen 1982b). In the Old World, it is represented by the genus Lampronia Stephens, 1829 only, whereas in North America several genera have been described, among them the well-known "Yucca-moths" (e.g. Greya Busck, 1903). Lampronia has been recorded from most countries of Europe (Karsholt & Nieukerken 2004), from parts of Siberia (Dubatolov 2009) and from the Himalayas (Nielsen 1982b). From Japan, it seems to be absent (anonymous 2009a). In North America, the distribution of Prodoxinae reaches from Canada to Mexico (GBIF 2009). Only one genus (Prodoxoides Nielsen & Davis, 1984) is known so far from South America.
Following Nielsen (1982b), the Prodoxinae (in family rank treated by Nielsen) are characterized by the following assumed autapomorphies: 1. a pair of stellate signa in the female corpus bursae and 2. the females having a posteriorly well-rounded sternum VII and a triangular tergum VIII. Males may be recognized by the flattened, scale-shaped spines on the valve (apparently mixed up by Nielsen 1982) and the presence of well-defined pectinifers. These characters however, are intermediate in Incurvaria praelatella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775). Furthermore, the larvae of Prodoxinae are endophagous in herbs and shrubs. Apart from the gall making larvae of the Cecidosidae, all other incurvarioid larvae are typically case-making leaf-miners (Nielsen 1982b). Unless a thorough revision of all incurvarioid taxa has been performed, including DNA-analysis, I prefer to treat Prodoxinae in subfamily rank only. This is also due to the confusion of attributing several species or even genera of the European fauna to either Prodoxinae or Incurvariinae in the last 30 years. Even in the latest issue of the "Catalogue of Life" (Bisby et al. 2009), this confusion has been prolonged, when treating Tinea oehlmanniella Hübner, 1796 or Tinea praelatella [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775 as Lampronia instead of Incurvaria-species and furthermore assigning Lampronia to the Incurvariidae.
anonymous 2009a. An Identification Guide of Japanese Moths Compiled by Everyone. URL: http://www.jpmoth.org [online 15 September, 2009].
Bisby F. A., Y. R. Roskov, T. M. Orrell, D. Nicolson, L. E. Paglinawan, N. Bailly, P. M. Kirk, T. Bourgoin & G. Baillargeon (eds.) 2009. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2009 Annual Checklist. Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2009/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Dubatolov, V. V. 2009. Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum: Incurvariidae. http://szmn.sbras.ru/Lepidop/Incurvar.htm [online 15 September 2009].
GBIF 2009. Biodiversity occurrence data accessed through GBIF Data Portal, www.gbif.net, [online 5 October 2009].
Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken 2004. Prodoxidae. In - Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken (eds.). Lepidoptera, Moths. – Fauna Europaea version 1.1, http://www.faunaeur.org [online 5 May 2008].
Nielsen, E. S. 1982b. Incurvariidae and Prodoxidae from the Himalayan area (Lepidoptera: Incurvarioidea). Insecta Matsumurana, new series 26: 187 - 200.
Nielsen, E. S. & D. R. Davis 1984. The first southern hemisphere prodoxid and the phylogeny of the Incurvarioidea (Lepidoptera)
Riley, C.V. 1881. Further notes on the pollination of Yucca and on Pronuba and Prodoxus. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 29, 617-639, 16 figs.
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