Type: Incurvaria Haworth, 1828|
Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:|
Species of Incurvariinae are distributed on all continents, except the Antarctic (Hodges et al. 1983, Karsholt & Nieukerken 2004, Nielsen et al. 1996, Nielsen & Davis 1981, Scoble 1980).
From the Prodoxinae, but also from all other subfamilies of the Incurvarioidea, the Incurvariinae are distinguished by the following, possibly autapomorphic characters: (1) reduction or loss of the epiphysis on the foretibia and (2) free distal ends of the juxta in the male genitalia. Furthermore, the missing of the signa in the bursa copulatrix of the female genitalia distinguishes them from the Prodoxinae. The larvae of the Incurvariinae mine only in the first instar, later they build a flat case from pieces of leaves, where they live in. This seems to be a plesiomorphy, since larvae of Heliozelidae and Adelidae build similar cases. In contrast, larvae of Prodoxinae mostly are stem borers.
Hodges, R. W. et al. 1983. Check List of the Lepidoptera of America North of Mexico. E. W. Classey, London, UK. Updated by Jean-François Landry, Don Lafontaine and Jim Troubridge [available on http://www.lepbarcoding.org/cl_nth_am.php]
Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken 2004. Incurvariidae. In - Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken (eds.). Lepidoptera, Moths. – Fauna Europaea version 1.1, http://www.faunaeur.org [online 29 April 2009].
Nielsen, E. S. & D. R. Davis 1981. A revision of the neotropical Incurvariidae s.str. with the description of two new genera and two new species (Lepidoptera: Incurvariidae). Steenstrupia 7: 25 - 57.
Nielsen, E. S., E. D. Edwards, and T. V. Rangsi 1996. Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera Volume 4. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood Victoria.
Scoble, M. J. 1980. A new Incurvariinae leaf-miner from South Africa with comments on structure, life history, phylogeny and the binomial system of nomenclature (Lepidoptera: Incurvariidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 43: 77 - 88.
Kurz Michael: 2009.09.02