N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Micropterix aruncella (Scopoli, 1763)

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Phalaena aruncella Scopoli, 1763: 254
Type locality: Slovenia, Carniola
Type: Lost or destroyed in coll. IEUP (Evenhuis 1997).

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
Tinea seppella Fabricius, 1777: 296. Type locality: England (Karsholt in litt.). Junior subjective synonym.
Tinea podevinella Hübner, 1813: pl.50, fi g.342. Type locality: None given. Junior subjective synonym.
Lampronia concinnella Stephens, 1834: 361. Type locality: Darenth wood (Great Britain). Junior subjective synonym.
Micropteryx eximiella Zeller, 1850: 62. Type locality: Montenero (near Livorno, Tuscany, Italy). Junior subjective synonym.
Eriocephala atricapilla Wocke, 1877: 52. Type locality: Stelvio (Italy). Junior subjective synonym.
Micropteryx nuraghella Amsel, 1936: 364. Type locality: Tempio Pausanias (Sardinia, Italy). Junior subjective synonym.

Habit:

: Austria, Salzburg, Thalgau, 1989.05.18, coll. Kurz f. atricapilla Wocke: Italia, Friuli, near Tarviso, Cave del Predil, 900 m, 1996.06.15, coll. Kurz f. nuraghella Amsel: Greece, Mt. Olympos, Kataphyg., 2000 m, 1962.06.28, leg. Josef Klimesch, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, München forma ?, ssp.n. ?: Italia, Abruzzo, Gran Sasso d´Italia, Campo Imperatore, Castel del Monte, 1993.05.24, coll. Kurz
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forma ?, ssp.n.?: Italia, Abruzzo, Montagna della Maiella, 1982.07.13, leg. Klimesch, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayrischen Staates, Munich (ZSM) : Austria, Salzburg, Thalgau, 1989.05.18, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz f. atricapilla Wocke: Italia, Friuli, near Tarviso, Cave del Predil, 900 m, 1996.06.15, coll. Kurz forma ?, ssp.n. ?: Italia, Abruzzo, Montagna della Maiella, 1982.07.13, leg. Klimesch, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayrischen Staates, Munich (ZSM)
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Scheme of wing pattern:

Description of adults. Examined: 90 , 71 . Forewing length: 2,6 - 3,6 mm; 2,6 - 4,0 mm. Head black-brown, vestiture of hair-like scales on the head dirty white to rusty yellow, sometimes brownish golden to blackish (f. atricapilla Wocke); antennae dark brown, reddish golden shining, nearly 4/5 (), or somewhat over 1/2 () of forewing length; thorax bronzy golden to coppery, posteriorly often purple; tegulae purple to bluish; forewing golden to bronzy golden (seldom light golden), with more or less reddish tinge, which is sometimes missing; in specimens from the northern and central Apennines ground colouration often reddish bronzy golden to coppery; basal area mostly distinct purple at the costa, to some extent with single bluish scales; this purple colouration sometimes extending to 1/4 along the costa, sometimes nearly completely missing; apex in most specimens slightly more reddish than ground colour; mostly without any other markings, but specimens from the northern and central Apennines similar to males; with silvery white, often diffusely, but in specimens from the northern and central Apennines markings very distinct (markings missing in f. nuraghella Amsel): a narrow fascia near 1/4, not reaching costa but extending across more than half of the forewing width (strongly bent inwards and sometimes reduced to a small spot); a narrow, quite straight fascia, mostly extending across the whole width of the forewing at 1/2; sometimes a small, round spot in the anterior half of the wing at 3/4 (f. seppella Fabricius), distinctly pronounced in specimens from the northern and central Apennines; fringe light golden, mostly with a slight purplish tinge; hindwing golden to bronzy golden, more or less purplish, especially at the apex; fringe light golden with a reddish tinge; legs and abdomen brown, golden shining.

Remarks. This species shows a distinctive sexual dichroism and is one of the most variable species of the genus. Besides f. atricapilla mentioned above, which is common in the mountainous regions of the Alps, and f. seppella, specimens are known from the northern and central Apennines with distinct silvery white markings on a coppery ground colour. Furthermore, from Sardinia f. nuraghella has been described, characterized by males without any wing markings. Nevertheless, considering the genitalia, all these forms have been proven to belong to M. aruncella. The forms atricapilla and nuraghella, as well as the specimens from the northern and central Apennines may therefore present distinct subspecies.

Distribution:

Heath (1996) and Karsholt (2004) have reported this species throughout Europe except Portugal, Sicily, Malta, Iceland, Romania, Albania, Bulgaria, Crete and the European part of Turkey. According to Heath (1983) and Meeß (1910), M. aruncella is distributed throughout Europe except the Iberian Peninsula, northwards to Sweden and Finland, eastwards to Russia.
The species has been found from near sea level up to 2600 m a.s.l., but with only 4 specimens out of 250 above 2000 m a.s.l. (Kurz et al. 2009).

Biology:

At alpine altitudes, aruncella dwells in elfin woodland on Pinus mugo mugo: Abruzzo, Montagna della Maiella, la Maieletta, 1930 m, 2005.07.05 M. aureatella, M. aureoviridella and M. aruncella feeding together on a single blossom of Rosa pendulina: Vorarlberg, Brandnertal, Böser Tritt, 1700 m, 2004.07.30 without data without data
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Styria, Grazer Bucht east, Grazer Feld, Enzelsdorf, 2001.05.24 Styria, Grazer Bucht east, Grazer Feld, Enzelsdorf, 2004.05.31 Styria, Grazer Bucht east, Grazer Feld, Enzelsdorf, 2004.05.31 Eastern Tyrol, Lienzer Dolomiten, Lavant, Kienbichl, 2004.06.10
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Vorarlberg, Bregenzer Wald, near Bezau, Sienspitze, upper Hinteregg-Alpe, feeding on Plantago media, 2004.08.10 Vorarlberg, Bregenzer Wald, near Bezau, Sienspitze, upper Hinteregg-Alpe, feeding on Plantago media, 2004.08.10 Abruzzo, Montagna della Maiella, near la Maielletta, feeding on Pinus mugo mugo, 2005.07.05 Abruzzo, Montagna della Maiella, near la Maielletta, feeding on Pinus mugo mugo, 2005.07.05
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Abruzzo, Montagna della Maiella, near la Maielletta, feeding on Pinus mugo mugo, 2005.07.05      
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M. aruncella is found in meadows, in bushland, at grassy forest margins, but not inside taller forests, except within larger open clearings with grasses. This species prefers extensively used, more or less dry and bushy meadows, where the moths can be found feeding on flowering grass and also on blossoms of other plants (Heath 1960a; Meyer et. al. 2002, Kurz et al. 2009). In the Alps M. aruncella occurs also in elfin woodland where we found it on flowering Rosa pendulina L. and Pinus mugo mugo Turra. In other habitats we found this species on the flowers of Crataegus sp., Sambucus nigra, Urtica dioica, Cytisus spp., Lychnis flos-cuculi, Veronica chamaedrys, Rhododendron ferrugineum and Plantago media. On these flowers, competition has been observed to the following Micropterix-species (Kurz et al. 2009): Micropterix aureatella aureatella (Scopoli, 1763), Micropterix aureoviridella (Höfner, 1898), Micropterix vulturensis Heath, 1981 and Micropterix zangheriella Heath, 1963. The flight period of the imagines lasts from the end of April (only 4 specimens out of 337 in April) to August (39 specimens out of 337, see Kurz et al. 2009).

Stages in development:

According to Heath (1962, 1983), the egg has an oval shape, a length of 400–430 ìm and a width of 310–350 ìm, with up to 60 ìm long, rod-like structures. Immediately before hatching, the translucent white colour turns to grey.
According to Klausnitzer (2002), the body length of the final larval stage is 4.0–4.5 mm. The larva was found on Dactylis sp., where it probably feeds on detritus (Luff 1964; Heath 1983).
The pupa rests in a robust cocoon.

Anatomy:

, scheme of cuticula -genitalia, prep.-no. 201, Ch. Zeller: Lombardia, Bergamo, Morbegno, 2003.07.06, leg. Hausenblas & Zeller, coll. Christof Zeller -genitalia, prep.-no. 780, M. Kurz: Vorarlberg, Bregenzer Wald, near Mellau, trail to Hangspitze, 2004.08.07, leg. Puchmayr & Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz -genitalia, prep.-no. 886, M. Kurz: Greece, Mt. Olympos, Kataphyg., 2000 m, 1962.06.28, leg. Klimesch Josef, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayrischen Staates, Munich
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-genitalia, prep.-no. 287, M. Kurz: "Schlierbach; m[itte] 5.1892; Hauder", coll. Oberösterreichische Landessammlung, Linz , scheme of cuticula -genitalia, prep.-no. 809, M. Kurz, preparation in caustic potassium: Slovenia, Karst, Wippach valley, Nanos, 600 m, 1998.05.25, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz -genitalia, prep.-no. 809, M. Kurz, permanent preparation: Slovenia, Karst, Wippach valley, Nanos, 600 m, 1998.05.25, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz
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-genitalia, reddish golden form with markings, preparation in caustic potash, prep.-no. 757, M. Kurz: Liguria, near Pieve di Teco, Monesi, 1600 m, 1996.07.10, leg. Jan Liska, coll. Jan Liska -genitalia, reddish golden form with markings, permanent preparation, prep.-no. 757, M. Kurz: Liguria, near Pieve di Teco, Monesi, 1600 m, 1996.07.10, leg. Jan Liska, coll. Jan Liska -genitalia, prep.-no. 270, M. Kurz: "Gaisberg; 1280 m; 12.VIII.1965; Salzburg; Austria; leg. Fr. Mairhuber", coll. Haus der Natur, Salzburg -genitalia, reddish golden form with markings, prep.-no. 521, M. Kurz: "Italia; centr.; Montagna d.; Maiella 2000 m; 13.7.1982; Klimesch", coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, München
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Genitalia. Uncus long and narrow, somewhat enlarged at the tip; tegumen narrow, ventrally with a long, broadly hatchet-shaped terminal appendix, weakly sclerotized especially at the anterior margin; this hatchet-shaped appendix with some short setae; accessory claspers small, slipper-shaped, inside the above mentioned appendices and ventrally beyond their beginnings; at the dorsal margin of the inner surface of the distal end of the accessory claspers four or five short, slightly bent spinoid setae, which are multiply split at their ends; mostly at the lower margin 10 long, straight spinoid setae, bent at their ends; in the middle of the accessory claspers some short setae; valvae stout, beyond the middle strongly constricted, the distal ends spoon-like and slightly bent dorsad; on their inner surface an elongated patch of setae postbasally, a row of longer setae at their distal end and two or three irregular rows of shorter, straight spinoid setae.

Genitalia. Tergite IX missing; sternite IX only moderately sclerotized, reduced to two nearly halfmoon-shaped sclerotized plates with a narrow, weaker sclerotized junction. This sternite IX, the receptaculum seminis and also the terminal papillae are more or less characteristic for this species, although sternite IX is not so distinctive in specimens from central Italy. Terminal papillae sclerotized in a medially broader band; receptaculum seminis very long and narrow, narrowest above the middle; the last part somewhat enlarged; receptaculum seminis with a distinct striation along the whole length and a short appendix.

Diagnosis:

M. aruncella : Austria, Salzburg, Thalgau, 1989.05.18, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz M. aruncella forma ?, ssp.n. ?: Italia, Abruzzo, Montagna della Maiella, 1982.07.13, leg. Klimesch, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayrischen Staates, Munich (ZSM) M. italica : Italia, Puglia, Val d´Ofanto, 1966.05.02-04, leg. Klimesch, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayrischen Staates, Munich (ZSM) M. renatae ALLOTYPE: Tuscany, Alpi Apuane, Castelnuovo di Garfagnana, 1993.05.14, leg. Hausenblas, Zeller, Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz
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M. erctella : Sicilia, northern coast, Cefalù, 1982.04.22, leg. Klimesch, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayrischen Staates, Munich (ZSM) M. fenestrellensis : Piemonte, Val Chisone, Fenestrelle, 1600 m, 2002.07.25, leg. Renate Hausenblas und Christof Zeller, coll. Christof Zeller M. corcyrella corcyrella : Macedonia, Treska-Schlucht, 1959.04, leg. Klimsch, coll. Michael Kurz M. aureoviridella : Salzburg, Pongau, Hochkönig, Kaserfeld-Mandlwand, 1750 m, 1994.07.02, leg. Kurz & Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz
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M. aruncella : Austria, Salzburg, Thalgau, 1989.05.18, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz M. calthella : Tuscany, Pisa district, near Laura, Lorenzana, 1995.05.07, leg. Hausenblas, Zeller, Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz M. isobasella : Valais, Zwischbergental, 1650 m, 2002.07.23, leg. Renate Hausenblas und Christof Zeller, coll. Christof Zeller M. sicanella f. obsoleta : Sicilia, northern coast, Cefalù, 1982.04.17, leg. Klimesch, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayrischen Staates, Munich (ZSM)
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M. paykullella (form without markings): France, Alpes Maritimes, Marguareis, 2000.07.22, leg. Renate Hausenblas and Christof Zeller, coll. Christof Zeller M. corcyrella cephaloniensis PARATYPE: Greece, Ionian islands, Cephalonia, between Sparthi and Poros, 2001.04.14, leg. Flint O.S. Jr., coll. Michael Kurz M. mansuetella : Bavaria, Oberbayern, Wolfratshausen, Königsdorfer Moor, 2002.05.10, leg. Grünewald, coll. Grünewald M. myrtetella f. idae : Greece, Peloponnesos, Monemvasia, 370m, 2005.05.06, leg. Embacher & Zeller, coll. Christof Zeller
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M. aruncella, -genitalia, prep.-no. 201, Ch. Zeller: Lombardia, Bergamo, Morbegno, 2003.07.06, leg. Hausenblas & Zeller, coll. Christof Zeller M. italica -genitalia, prep.-no. 1020, M. Kurz: Basilicata, Lucano, Viggianello, 900 m, 2000.06.07, leg. Christof Zeller, coll. Michael Kurz M. renatae -genitalia, prep.-no. 628, M. Kurz, HOLOTYPE: Tuscany, Alpi Apuane, Castelnuovo di Garfagnana, 1993.05.14, leg. Hausenblas/Zeller/Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz M. erctella f. uxoria -genitalia, prep.-no. 946, M. Kurz: Sicilia, Mistretta, 900 m, 1952.06.11, leg. J. Klimesch, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayrischen Staates, Munich (ZSM)
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M. fenestrellensis -genitalia, (uncus broken!), prep.-no. 785 Michael Kurz: Piemonte, Val Chisone, Fenestrelle, 1600 m, 2002.07.25, leg. Renate Hausenblas, Christof Zeller, coll. Christof Zeller M. corcyrella, -genitalia, prep.-no. 482, M.Kurz: Macedonia, near Skopje, Treska Schlucht, 1959.04, leg. J.Klimsch, coll. Michael Kurz M. aureoviridella -genitalia, prep.-no. 778, M.Kurz: Salzburg, Hohe Tauern, Habachtal, near Gasthaus Enzian, 2004.07.17, coll. Michael Kurz M. calthella -genitalia, prep.-no. 387, M.Kurz: Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, Thalgauegg, location 8/120, 1987.05.17, leg. Zeller/Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz
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M. isobasella -genitalia, prep.no. 805 M.Kurz: Valais, Zwischbergental, 1650 m 2002.07.23, leg. Renatae Hausenblas, Christof Zeller, coll. Michael Kurz M. sicanella -genitalia, prep.-no. 949, M. Kurz: Sicilia, Taormina, 1971.04.10, leg. Kusdas Karl, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayrischen Staates, Munich (ZSM) M. paykullella -genitalia, (form without markings), prep.-no. 741, M.Kurz: France, Alpes Maritimes, Marguareis, location 1, 2000.07.22, leg. Hausenblas und Zeller, coll. Michael Kurz M. mansuetella -genitalia, prep.-no. 788, M.Kurz: Bavaria, Oberpfalz, Regensburg, Bodenwöhr, 2003.05.18, leg. Renate Hausenblas, Christof Zeller, coll. Michael Kurz
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M. myrtetella, typical form, -genitalia, prep.-no. 754, M. Kurz: Croatia, Kvarneric islands, Krk, Baska, 2002.04.30, leg. et coll. Jan Liska M. aruncella -genitalia, prep.-no. 809, M. Kurz: Slovenia, Karst, Wippach valley, Nanos, 600 m, 1998.05.25, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz M. italica -genitalia, prep.-no. 763, M. Kurz: Basilicata, Lucano, Vulture, Val d´Ofanto, 1966.05.03, leg. Josef Klimesch, coll. Michael Kurz M. renatae -genitalia, prep.-no. 1018, M. Kurz: Italia, Emilia Romagna, Bologna, Ravonna, 1949.05.24 ± 2 d, leg. J. Klimesch, in coll. ZSM, Munich
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M. erctella f. uxoria -genitalia, prep.-no. 947, M. Kurz: Sicilia, Mistretta, 900 m, 1952.06.11, leg. J. Klimesch, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayrischen Staates, Munich (ZSM) M. fenestrellensis -genitalia, prep.-no. 817, M. Kurz: Piemonte, Val Chisone, Fenestrelle, 1500 m, 2002.07.26, leg. Hausenblas/Zeller, coll. Christof Zeller M. corcyrella cephaloniensis -genitalia, prep.-no. 753 M. Kurz, PARATYPE: Greece, Ionian islands, Cephalonia, between Sparthi and Poros, 2001.04.14, leg. Flint O.S., Jr., coll. Michael Kurz M. aureoviridella -genitalia, prep.-no. 810, M. Kurz: Osttirol, Glocknergruppe, Kals, Moar Alm, 1800 - 2000 m, 2002.06.27, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz
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M. calthella -genitalia, prep.-no. 961, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, Stilles Tal, 1987.05.29, leg. Zeller/Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz M. isobasella -genitalia, prep.-no. 806 M.Kurz: Valais, Zwischbergental, 1650 m, 2002.07.23, leg. Renate Hausenblas, Christof, Zeller, coll. Michael Kurz M. sicanella f. obsoleta -genitalia, prep.-no. 948, M. Kurz: Sicilia, northern coast, Cefalù, 1982.04.17, leg. J. Klimesch, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayrischen Staates, Munich (ZSM) M. paykullella -genitalia, prep.-no. 811, M.Kurz: Piemonte, province of Cuneo, Bersezio, 1973.07.21, leg. J.Klimesch, coll. Michael Kurz
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M. mansuetella -genitalia, prep.-no. 760 M.Kurz: without data, coll. Zoologische Sammlung des Bayrischen Staates, Munich M. myrtetella f. idae -genitalia, prep.-no. 896, M. Kurz: Greece, Peloponnesos, Taygetos, Kastanea, 1999.05.24, leg. Puchmayr & Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz    
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Males with an intense, reddish colouration may be confused with Micropterix aureoviridella (Höfner, 1898) in central Europe, but they can be separated by their lack of the golden colouration of the inner margin and by their narrower and more silvery fasciae. Similar Mediterranean species, like Micropterix corcyrella Walsingham, 1919, Micropterix erctella Walsingham, 1919, Micropterix italica Heath, 1981 and Micropterix renatae Kurz, Kurz & Zeller, 1997, but also the alpine Micropterix fenestrellensis Heath & Kaltenbach, 1984 can be recognized with certainty only by examination of the genitalia, although they are normally more reddish and show more distinct silvery whitish markings (except M. fenestrellensis). We also found Micropterix myrtetella idae Rebel, 1902 from Peloponnes with dark scales on head, which looks also very similar to M. aruncella f. atricapilla. Females can be separated from other species without wing markings by their purple colouration at the base of the forewing costa. In Micropterix calthella (Linnaeus, 1761), this colouration reaches the inner margin, whereas in Micropterix isobasella Staudinger, 1871 and Micropterix sicanella Zeller, 1847 f. obsoleta Heath, 1963, it is almost missing. In the Alpes Maritimes we have found a form of Micropterix paykullella (Fabricius, 1794) that also lacks markings and with a less extended purple colouration of the base of the forewing. Micropterix mansuetella Zeller, 1844 has black scales on the head, similar to M. aruncella f. atricapilla, although the latter never has such an intense black colouration. Furthermore, these two species prefer different biotopes. M. mansuetella inhabits swampland, whereas M. aruncella is normally found on sunny, dry, nutrient-poor meadows. Nevertheless, both species can also be found more or less syntopically, where these biotopes intersect.
There are further similar species in the Sierra Nevada in Spain and in northern Africa, but so far M. aruncella has not been found there. In all cases, males can be easily recognized by their characteristic genitalia, and also the female genitalia seem to be fairly diagnostic.

Phylogeny: Based on characters of the male genitalia, M. aruncella is assumed to be one of the "higher developed" members of an otherwise primitive group of the genus, which is characterized by the following possible apomorphies: Lobes between uncus and accessory claspers prominently developed; accessory claspers reduced. M. aruncella has the above mentioned lobes very prominently developed, whereas the accessory claspers are already much reduced. In other members of the group, the development of the additional lobes is less pronounced and the accessory claspers are still fully functional (e.g. M. aureatella and its relatives). Therefore, the species seems to be quite isolated morphologically among the other members of the group.

Worth knowing:

Sources:

Amsel, H.G. 1936. Zur Kenntnis der Kleinschmetterlingsfaua Sardiniens. – Veröffentlichungen aus dem Deutschem Kolonial- und Übersee Museum Bremen 1 (3): 344–365, pl. 15.
Evenhuis N. L. 1997. Litteratura taxonomica dipterorum. (1758–1930). – 2 vols. 871 pp. Leiden Backhuys.
Fabricius, J. C. 1777 [imprint "1776"]. Genera insectorum eorumque charcteres naturales secundum numerum, figuram, situm et proportionem omnium partium oris adiecta mantissa specierum nuper detectarum. – Chilonii, pp. [i]– [xii], 1–310.
Heath, J. 1960a. The food plants of adult Micropterygids (Lep.). – The Entomologist´s Monthly Magazine 95: 188.
Heath, J. 1962. The eggs of Micropteryx (Lep., Micropterygidae). – The Entomologist´s Monthly Magazine 97: 179–181.
Heath, J. 1983. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol.I: Micropterigidae – Heliozelidae. – Harley Books, Martins, Great Horkesley, Colchester, Essex.
Heath, J. 1996. Family Micropterigidae – In: O. Karsholt & J. Razowski (eds), The Lepidoptera of Europa. A distributional checklist. – Apollo-Books, Stenstrup.
Hübner, J. 1796–1836 ["1796"] a. Sammlung europäischer Schmetterlinge. Horde 8. Tineae-Schaben: [1]–[12]+13–70+[71]–[78], pls 2–71. Augsburg. Continued by C. Geyer.
Karsholt, O. 2004. Families Acanthopteroctetidae, Axiidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Drepanidae, Eriocottidae, Eriocraniidae, Gelechiidae, Heterogynidae, Limacodidae, Lypusidae, Micropterigidae, Roeslerstammiidae, Somabrachyidae, Uraniidae. In: Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken (eds.). Lepidoptera, Moths. – Fauna Europaea version 1.1, http://www.faunaeur.org [online 16 December 2004].
Klausnitzer B., E. Meyer, W. Kössler & G. Eisenbeis 2002. On the larval morphology of Micropterix aruncella (Scopoli, 1963). – Beiträge zur Entomologie 52 (2002) 2: 353–366.
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Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2006.03.16
Zeller Christof: 2006.11.18
Kurz Michael: 2008.11.05
Kurz Michael: 2008.11.27
Kurz Michael: 2009.03.31
Kurz Michael: 2009.12.18
Kurz Michael: 2009.12.23
Kurz Michael: 2010.01.09
Kurz Michael: 2010.02.02
Kurz Michael: 2010.12.22
Kurz Michael: 2012.04.18
Kurz Michael: 2012.09.21
Kurz Michael: 2012.09.23
Kurz Michael: 2013.06.26
Kurz Michael: 2013.10.28
not reviewed

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