N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Siederia talagovensis Kurz M. A, M. E. Kurz & Zeller, 2013

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Siederia talagovensis Kurz M. A, M. E. Kurz & Zeller, 2013: 1-11.
Type locality: Austria, Salzburg, Thalgau, Fuschlsee, 710 m
Type: Holotype : Austria, Salzburg, Thalgau, Fuschlsee, 710 m, 4.5.1989

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
? Siederia rupicolella sensu auctorum

Habit:

 
HOLOTYPE: Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, Fuschlsee, location 10/79a, 1989.05.04, leg. Kurz & Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz PARATYPE: Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, Fuschlsee, location 10/79a, 1989.05.04, leg. Kurz & Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz Paratype: Salzburg, Thalgau, Fuschlsee, e.p. 1989, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz
a) Female in lateral aspect
b) Frontal aspect of head
c) Magnified presentation of antennal segments, as well as a 5-segmented tarsus
d) Ventral aspect of 4th and 5th abdominal sternite (medially with a knot of ganglia?)
e) 7th abdominal sternite
f) Ventral aspect of genitalia
g) Separate thorns of anal area.
 
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 

Description of adults: Examined: 2 , 7 .

: Forewing length: 7.3 - 7.7 mm; Head with distant, greyish, hair-like scales; antennae about 1/2 of forewing length, with slightly more than 30 segments; the latter with partly narrow-elongate, partly broader scales with 2-3 distinct indentations; antennae brown, basally mixed whitish, at anterior and lower side with fine ciliae, the latter apr. twice as long as the diameter of the antenna; less conspicuous, some bristles of half the length; thorax brownish-grey; forewings elongate, narrow, similar to that of Siederia meierella (Sieder, 1956); anterior margin straight, hardly incised; ground colour silvery-grey with irregular, indistinct, dirty white mottling, the specks in size and distribution similar to those of Siederia rupicolella (Sauter, 1954) and S. meierella; along costal margin, close to apex, 3-4 small, very indistinct darker spots; also indistinct, a dark spot at discus; mostly conspicuous, a bigger dark greyish spot at inner margin; covering scales conspicuously slender for a Siederia, only class III-IV according to Sauter (1956), with only 2-3 distinct indentations; scales of fringe long and slender, with 2-4 delicate tips, monochrome silvery-grey; hindwings translucent greyish with very delicate scaling; scales slender, long, mostly with 2 indentations; scales of fringe similar to forewing, towards anal margin increasingly longer and becoming hair-like; scales of underside fine and slender, mostly with 2 distinct indentations; veins m2 and m3 of hindwing distinctly separated from each other at their basis in both animals; legs unicolorous, brownish-grey; only at tarsal segments mixed whitish; foretibia with epiphysis, hidden in a tuft of long scales, midtibiae with a pair of long spurs at distal end; hindtibiae with a tuft of long hair-like scales and a pair of spurs each at about 0.5 of tibial lenght and at distal end; abdomen silvery-greyish.

: Length (with contracted ovipositor, which itself measures about 1.5 mm) 4-5 mm, diameter slightly more than 1 mm; shape roll-like, straight, stretched; head somewhat dislocated venterwards, cross-oval, black-brown sclerotized, naked, only with some bristles; eyes big, laterally semi-globular, black, facetted; labial palpi very small, glassy, with 1-2 short segments, as well as longer bristle at distal end; other mouth parts atrophied; antennae longer than thorax, with 18-22 segments, translucent brownish; 1st segment much, 2nd and 3rd less enlarged and thickened; all other segments elongate, cylindrical, with some shorter single bristles and mostly with 1-3 anteriorly directed slender and elongate scales, normally fixed in center of segment and reaching about 2/3 of segmental length; special bristles ("Stiftborsten" according to Sauter 1956) missing; body light greyish-ochreous; 1st segment of thorax very slender, a sclerotized tergite missing, sternite well developed; 2nd segment with big arced, dark redbrown tergite; thoracal tergite 3 similarly sclerotized (both tergites 2 and 3 sometimes with slight reductions), but somewhat irregular and only half as broad; sternites of thoracal segments 2 and 3 normal, dark brown sclerotized; remnants of forewings apr. twice as large, that of hindwings somewhat smaller than an eye, both light glassy; legs well developed and well sclerotized including tibiae, dark redbrown, with distinct scaling and some bristles; spurs at distal end of mid- and hindtibiae variable in size, sometimes nearly atrophied; tarsi translucent brownish, sparcely scaled, with originally 5 segments, which are mostly reduced to 4, seldom also to 3 segments; intermediate mergings (with indications of segment borders) possible; tergites 1-7 of abdomen well developed, umber brown, well sclerotized, with irregular, fringy margins; tergite 1 somewhat longer and more slender than the others, with rounded lateral margins; sternite 1 missing; sternites 2-6 reduced in comparison with tergites, also umber brown, with fringy margins, medially nearly or completely disrupted; here, a bigger yellowish-brown knot of ganglia (?) visible; sternite 7 large, nearly completely developed but medially mostly reduced and weakly sclerotized or even membranous; segment 7 ventrally also with a silk-white, undulated tuft of long hair-like, simple scales; abdominal segments 2-7 laterally membranous, with very sparse, dark brown scaling, this scaling partly also on the otherwise naked scerites (only weakly developed on segment 7); segment 1 laterally only with single scales.

Distribution:

So far, S. talagovensis is known only from a few localities in the northern calcareous Alps of Salzburg and Upper Austria. Vertically, records are documented only from 710 - 850 m a.s.l. (Kurz & Kurz 2013). Possibly, also populations from Baden-Württemberg (Herrmann 1991) and Lichtenstein (Aistleitner 2001), recently recognized as S. rupicolella, belong to S. talagovensis. The latter is probably a relic from ice age and is very seldom and threatened on all localities.

Biology:

   
Biotope of S. talagovensis: Salzburg, Thalgau, Fuschlsee, Location 10/79, 2011.04.10 A clear stand of fir: Salzburg, Flachgau, Elsbethen, way to the Fageralm, 2004.05.20    
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
   

The type locality lies on the southwards directed slope of a woody, calcareous hill in about 700 m a.s.l., in a clear dry mixed wood of beech and conifers. The ground vegetation is partly covering the soil, partly also interrupted by stones, as well as leaf litter and consists mainly of short grasses and low herbaceous plants (e.g. Mercurialis perennis). Apart from some bags, which have been found a few hundred meters dislodged, the population is confined to an area of a few hundred square meters only. Bags have been found almost exclusively on stems of conifers (spruce, fir or pine), seldom also on beech in a height between 10 cm and 1.3 m from ground level. No sightings have been made on a 5 m high, rocky steep slope, where bags of parthenogenetic Dahlica triquetrella (Hübner, [1813]) have not been seldom. Syntopically with S. talagovensis other psychids have been found, e.g. parthenogenetic Dahlica lichenella (Linné, 1761). On the other localities, the species has been found on the edge of a clear fir stand, as well as in woodland with Erica carnea and pine.
The development of the species lasts two years, with imagines in odd years only. Pupation takes place at the beginning of April, imagines emerge at the end of April or the beginning of May. The pupal stages lasts only about 14 days, at least in females. on May 4th 1989, the two males have been attracted with a baiting female. The males have been approaching at 6:40 and 7:10 a.m. MEZ. They have been flying slowly, only a short distance above ground, against the wind direction. Although one male and one female have been housed together afterwards for a complete day and although the female has been baiting several times, copulation took place only in the early morning next day. At 6:40 a.m., the female was already ovi-positioning, a task lasting almost until evening. Larvae emerged 32 days later. Unfertilized females live as long as 4-7 days.

Parasites: The grade of parastism seems to be quite low. From one bag, a female of a Diadegma-species (det. M. Schwarz, ? Diadegma incompletum Horstmann, 1973) has been reared on May 8th 1989, a second female ichneumon, probably of the same species emerged on May 4th 1991.

Stages in development:

Front of pupa Bag: Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, Fuschlsee, 2011.04.10 Salzburg, Osterhorngruppe, Elsbethen, 2005.04.10 Austria, Upper Austria, Pötschenpass, 2013.04.24
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: © Zeller Christof
Detailed view

Larva: The fullfed larva is whitish, with shining black head and similar thoracic platelets, the latter being divided delicately medially. Like in related species, the first thoracic platelet is the largest, whereas the third is the most reduced one. The legs are also blackish.

Female pupal exuviae: Like in other Siederia-species, the forehead is distinctly displaced from the cheeks, but it is not uniformly arced but rather emarginated medially under the neck-platelet and also sculptured. The sheaths of the antennae are on the average slightly longer than those of the forelegs.

Bags: The bags are apr. 7.5 - 9 mm long and 2 - 2.5 mm wide, noticeable slender, spindle-shaped and almost round in cross-section; lateral edges are only slightly developed, the dorsal edge mostly misses. The surface is occupied with delicate grains of earth, bark and excrements, but only exceptionally with small parts of green lichens. The colour is dark reddish brown.

Anatomy:

     
-genitalia, prep-no. 490, M. Kurz, PARATYPE: Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, Fuschlsee, location 10/79a, 1989.05.04, leg. Kurz & Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz      
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
     

Genitalia. Genitalia in form and structure typical for the genus; Indices following Sauter (1956): Genital index 1.26 ± 0.071 (1.21-1.31, n=2), valvae index b:c 5.90 ± 0.75 (5.0-6.61, n=4).

Genitalia. Lateral platelets densly covered with longer thorns; postvaginal plate free, much reduced and only irregularly sclerotized, often only sparsely covered with thorns; between the latter and the thorns of the intersegmental membrane an often broad, distinctly grooved area free of thorns; anal area only sparsely covered with thorns, the latter short to moderately long, irregular.

Diagnosis:

Schematic drawings of scales in discal area of male forewings S. talagovensis HOLOTYPE: Salzburg, Flachgau, Thalgau, Fuschlsee, location 10/79a, 1989.05.04, leg. Kurz & Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz S. rupicolella : Switzerland, Ticino, near Airolo, between Altanca and Brugniasco, 1997.05.02 e.p. 1997.05.15, leg. H/Z/K, coll. Michael Kurz S. meierella : Carinthia, Karawanken, Kleiner Loiblpass, 800 m, 1991.04.07 e.p. 1991.04.14, leg. Kurz & Kurz, coll. Michael Kurz
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
S. talagovensis Paratype: Salzburg, Thalgau, Fuschlsee, e.p. 1989, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz
a) Female in lateral aspect
b) Frontal aspect of head
c) Magnified presentation of antennal segments, as well as a 5-segmented tarsus
d) Ventral aspect of 4th and 5th abdominal sternite (medially with a knot of ganglia?)
e) 7th abdominal sternite
f) Ventral aspect of genitalia
g) Separate thorns of anal area.
S. rupicolella : Switzerland, Brugniasco /Ti, e.p. 1.6.1967, leg. et coll. P. Hättenschwiler
Female in lateral aspect
aside: Ventral aspect of genitalia
S. meierella : Carinthia, Karawanken, Loibltal, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz
a) Female in lateral aspect
b) Ventral aspect of genitalia
Thornes in dorsal area of abdomen of female pupae
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view

Siederia talagovensis is separeated from other central European members of the genus at once by the slender covering scales on the forewings of the males (scale class III-IV following Sauter 1956), bearing only 2-3 indentations. Like Siederia rupicolella (Sauter, 1954) and Siederia meierella (Sieder, 1956), the species belongs to those species with a long and slender distal part of the valvae. In this, it is distinctly separated from Siederia pineti (Zeller, 1852) and Siederia alpicolella (Rebel, 1919) and has the most slender distal part of the valvae of all central European species (valvae index b:c following Sauter 1956 in S. talagovensis 5.90, in S. rupicolella 5.78 and in S. meierella 5.02). The genital index (following Sauter 1956) of S. talagovensis with 1.26 ± 0.071 is closer to that of S. rupicolella (1.309 ± 0.018, Sauter 1956) than to that of S. meierella (1.128 ± 0.068), but is statistically not authorative due to only 2 measurements. From S. rupicolella, S. talagovensis is distinguished furthermore by the more elongate forewings and the larger size of the males, the normally developed first abdominal tergite, the medially reduced 7th abdominal sternite and the genitalia of the females (especially the broad zone devoid of thornes between postvaginal plate and intersegmental membrane), as well as by the longer bags. Furthermore, the number of antennal segments (18-22 in S. talagovensis) is slightly higher than in S. rupicolella (15-21 segments following Sauter 1956) and the scaling of the antennae is conspicuous in S. talagovensis. Compared with S. meierella, S. talagovensis can be recognized also by the following characters:
: Near apex, the costal margin of the forewings bears creamy coloured scales in S. meierella, whereas in S. talagovensis the margin is of ground colour. S. talagovensis seems to be more narrow winged.
: The females of S. meierella bear only a few scales on the antennae, whereas in S. talagovensis, there are many of them. Abdominal sternite 7 is mostly only a bit weaker sclerotized in S. meierella, but in S. talagovensis often only membraneous medially. The zone between postvaginal plate and intersegmental membrane, devoid of thornes, is very narrow and nearly ungrooved in S. meierella, whereas in S. talagovensis it is broad and conspicuously grooved.

The bags of S. talagovensis are of equal length than in both other species, but more slender and spindle-shaped. The dorsal edge, being often conspicous in S. meierella, is mostly missing. Like in S. rupicolella, the bag is covered with small grains of earth and bark, only seldom parts of lichen are attached too, whereas in S. meierella the covering consists of calcareous dust and lapilli, as well as more or less amount of parts of white lichens.

The female pupal exuviae of S. talagovensis show a slightly structured front plate, which is simply curved in S. meierella. The sheaths of the antennae are simple in S. talagovensis, in S. meierella, they are subdivided opposite of the cheeks and are much longer than those of the forelegs. In S. talagovensis, the sheath of the antennae are also longer than those of the forelegs, but less conspicuously.

In biology, the biggest difference to S. rupicolella and S. meierella is the fact, that bags of S. talagovensis are found only attached to the bark of trees, whereas in both other species, the bags are mostly attached to rocks, even in similar biotpes.

Table of characters of central European species of Siederia (in german)

Phylogeny: The taxa Siederia rupicolella (Sauter, 1954), Siederia meierella (Sieder, 1956), Siederia kathrinella Herrmann, 2001 and S. talagovensis form a morphologically well characterized group with in the genus Siederia. Populations from northern Europe, Baden-Württemberg (Herrmann 1991) and Liechtenstein (Aistleitner 2001), as well as an unsettled population from the Radstädter Tauern in Salzburg also belong to this group. All those populations are characterized in the male genitalia by a relatively high valvae index (Sauter 1956) of mostly distinctly more than 4. Otherwise, the genital indices (GI, following Sauter 1956) are rather low. On the basis of this index, S. rupicolella (GI = 1,309) and S. meierella (GI = 1,128) are well separated. S. kathrinella (GI = 1,14) lies closer to S. meierella, whereas all other mentioned populations including S. talagovensis (GI = 1,26) resemble S. rupicolella closer. Apart from that, there are several morphological characters, allowing a separation of the populations. Since all those populations are allopatric, it is presently impossible to decide, whether they represent different species or only subspecies of one or two species. Particular copulation experiments between S. rupicolella, S. talagovensis and S. meierella gave no distinct results. So, a copula between a female of S. talagovensis and a male of S. rupicolella has been observed, with hatching of larvae too, but a breeding of these larvae failed. On the other hand, cross matings between S. rupicolella and S. meierella failed completely (although males responded to the presence of the wrong female with trembling wings). Since only few mating experiments could have been executed, partly using several days old females, and since also experiments within the same species sometimes failed, the results are not conclusive. DNA-data, hopefully bringing more light into the situation, are not yet available or are not publicly (BOLD systems 2013).

Worth knowing:

Derivatio nominis: Talagova is a historical name for Thalgau, the type locality of the species.

Sources:

Aistleitner, U. 2001. Die Spinner und Schwärmer des Fürstentums Liechtenstein (Lepidoptera: Bombyces et Sphinges sensu classico). Naturkundliche Forschung im Fürstentum Liechtenstein, Band 18, Vaduz.
Herrmann, R. 1991. Zur Kenntnis der Psychiden im württembergischen Allgäu - Siederia rupicolella neu für Deutschland (Lepidoptera, Psychidae). Nachrichten des entomologischen Vereins Apollo, NF 12(3): 187-191.
Kurz, M. A. & M. E. Kurz 2000–2013. Naturkundliches Informationssystem. – URL: http://www.nkis.info [online 31 May 2013].
Kurz, M. A., M. E. Kurz & C. Zeller-Lukashort 2013. Eine neue Psychidenart aus den Salzburger Kalkalpen: Siederia talagovensis sp.n. (Lepidoptera, Psychidae), Taxonomy Online, 11 pp., published 2013.08.13.
Ratnasingham, S. & P. Hebert 2007. BOLD: The Barcode of Life Data System. - URL: www.barcodinglife.org [online 04 June 2013].
Sauter, W. 1956. Morphologie und Systematik der schweizerischen Solenobia-Arten (Lep., Psychidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 63, no. 27: 449-550, 5 Taf.

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2013.05.30
Kurz Michael: 2013.06.04
Kurz Michael: 2013.06.13
Kurz Michael: 2013.06.19
Kurz Marion: 2013.07.01
Zeller Christof: 2013.07.11
Kurz Michael: 2014.02.10
Kurz Michael: 2014.03.12
Document reviewed by:
not reviewed: 2014.03.12
Document released by:
Kurz Michael: 2014.03.12

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