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Papilio (Papilio) polyxenes Fabricius, 1775

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

P[apilio]. E[ques]. T[rojanus]. Polyxenes Fabricius, 1775. Syst. Entomol.: 444-445, no. 10.
Type locality: "America"; further defined as "Americae meridionali insulis" by Fabricius 1781, Spec. Ins. 2: 4, no. 13; defined as "Cuba" by Rothschild and Jordan 1906, Novit. Zool. 13(3): 547. (Warren et al. 2013)
Type: probably lost (Warren et al. 2013)

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
Synonymy following Warren et al. (2013) and Häuser et al. (2005).

Papilio americus Kollar, 1850. Type locality: Nova-Granada ad ripas fluminis Orinoco, bei Angostura [Colombia]. Types: Lectotype in coll. NHMW, Vienna. Subspecies.
Pap[ilio] Eq[ues] Achiv[us] Asterius Stoll, 1782. Uitl. Kapellen 4(33): 194-196, pl. 385, figs. C D, D V; 4(34): 248 (index). Type Locality: "Nord-Amerika en wordt in Niewjork, Virginien en Carolina" "l´Amerique Septentrionale, dans la Nouvelle York, en Virginie et dans la Caroline". Types: Possible syntype in RNHL. Subspecies.
[Papilio Asterias] var. Ampliata Ménétriés, 1855. Enum. corp. anim. (1): 99-100, under no. 60. Type Locality: "l´Amerique septentrionale"; suggested to be "Mexico" by Rothschild and Jordan (1906), Novit. Zool. 13(3): 545. Types: Type(s) probably in ZIN. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll, 1782.
Papilio Calverleyi Grote, 1864. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 2(4): 441, pl. 10. Type Locality: "New York State...immediate neighborhood of the village of New Lots, Queen´s County, Long Island". Types: Holotype probably in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1898), Butt. Book: pl. 41, fig. 6 D. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll, 1782.
Papilio asterioides Reakirt, [1867]. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 18(3): 331-332, no. 27. Type Locality: "Mexico". Types: Holotype (#7011) in ANSP. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll, 1782.
Papilio polyxenes var. curvifascia Skinner, 1902. Entomol. News 13(6): 183. Type Locality: "Rincon, New Mexico" [Dona Ana County]. Types: Syntype (#7026) in ANSP; a "paratype" figured by W. Holland (1931), Butt. Book (rev. ed.): pl. 70, fig. 12 D. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll, 1782.
P[apilio] T[rojanus] Gracehus Bryk, 1938. Syst. Glossat.: 23, no. 18. Type Locality: "Philadelphia" [Philadlephia County, Pennsylvania]. Types: Location of type not known. Misspelling of Papilio Trojanus Gracchus Fabricius, 1798 ?. Junior subjective synonym of Papilio polyxenes asterius Stoll, 1782.
Papilio asterias var. pupae viridis Cockerell, 1889. Entomol. 22(314): 199. Type Locality: Not stated. Types: No "type" designated (a variety of the pupa). Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
P[apilio] asterius var. alunata Skinner & E. Aaron, 1889. Can. Entomol. 21(7): 127-128. Type Locality: "Philadelphia, Pa." implied from the title of the paper; "syntype" labeled from "Fairmont Park, Phila." [Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania]. Types: "Syntype" (#7012) in ANSP. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Papilio mediocauda Eimer, 1895. Artb. Verwandtsch. Schmett. 2: 118, 138. Type Locality: "Canada". Types: Location of type(s) not known. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Papilio asterias, Var. semi-alba , nov. var. Ehrmann, 1900. Can. Entomol. 32(11): 348. Type Locality: "S. W. Penn´a." [Pennsylvania]. Types: "Holotype" in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1927), Ann. Carnegie Mus. 17(2): pl. 25, fig. 1 D. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
[Papilio polyxenes] ab. masculina Reiff, 1911. Z. wiss. InsektBiol. 7(7/8): 235. Type Locality: Not stated. Types: "Holotype" in MCZ (ex Bussey Institute). Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Papilio ehrmanni n. ab. (of asterius) Ehrmann, 1925. Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. Soc. 20(2): 84. Type Locality: "Hammet Place, Allegheny Co., Pa." [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania]. Types: "Holotype" in CMNH; figured by W. Holland (1927), Ann. Carnegie Mus. 17(2): pl. 25, fig. 2 D. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Pap[ilio] asterius ab. gertrudis ab. nov. Kruck, 1931. Entomol. Rdsch. 48(22): 236, fig. 2 D ("holotype"). Type Locality: "Mexiko-Süd, Dep. Oaxaca". Types: "Holotype" in Kruck collection. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
Papilio ajax forsythae new aberration Wood, 1937. Entomol. News 48(10): 273, pl. 4, D ("holotype"). Type Locality: "Florida City, Florida" [Miami-Dade County]. Types: "Holotype" in AMNH. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
[Papilio ajax race] pseudoamericus F. Brown, [1943]. Entomol. News 53(10): 291. Type Locality: "Troy, Illinois" [Madison County]. Types: "Holotype" in Meiners collection, St. Louis, Missouri. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.
P[apilio] polyxenes asterius f. subamplicata Dufrane, 1946. Bull. Annls. Soc. Entomol. Belg. 82(5/6): 106. Type Locality: "Temple, Pa. (E. U. A.)" [Berks County, Pennsylvania]. Types: "Holotype" probably in IRSN. Unavailable infrasubspecific name.

Eastern Black Swallowtail, American Swallowtail, Parsnip Swallowtail
Schwarzer Schwalbenschwanz

Distribution:

The species is distributed from Canada throughout the eastern US and Central America to the northern parts of South America (Colombia, see Warren et al. 2013, Häuser et al. 2005).

Worth knowing:

Sources:

Fabricius, J. C. 1781. Species insectorum exhibentes eorum differentias specificas, synonyma auctorum, loca natalia, metamorphosin adiectis observationibus, descriptionibus. Tom. II. 1-517. Hamburg und Kiel.
Häuser, C. L., J. Holstein & A. Steiner 2005. The Global Butterfly Information System. http://www.globis.insects-online.de. Last updated 14.04.2011 [online 15 January 2013].
Rothschild, W. & K. Jordan 1906. A Revision of the American Papilios. Novitates Zoologicae XIII: 411-752, pl. IV-IX.
Warren, A. D., K. J. Davis, N. V. Grishin, J. P. Pelham, E. M. Stangeland 2012. Interactive Listing of American Butterflies. - URL: http://www.butterfliesofamerica.com/ [online 01 October 2013].

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2013.10.01
not reviewed

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