N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Colias Fabricius, 1807

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Colias Fabricius, 1807
Type: Papilio hyale Linnaeus, 1758 (ICZN Opinion 146, 1943)

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
List of synonyms following Grieshuber & Lamas, 2007:

Colais Doyère, 1837. Incorrect subsequent spelling.
Ganura Zetterstedt, [1839]. Unavailable (ICZN, Art. 11.6)
Gólias Praun, 1859. Incorrect subsequent spelling.
Eurymus Horsfield, [1829]. Type species: Papilio hyale Linnaeus, 1758. Junior homonym of Eurymus Rafinesque, 1815 and junior objective synonym.
Scalidoneura Butler, 1871. Type species: Scalidoneura hermina Butler, 1871. Junior subjective synonym.
Eriocolias Watson, 1895. Type species: Papilio edusa Fabricius, 1787 (nec Papilio edusa Fabricius, 1777). Junior subjective synonym.
Coliastes Hemming, 1931. Type species: Papilio hyale Linnaeus, 1758. Junior objective synonym.
Protocolias Petersen, 1963. Type species: Colias imperialis Butler, 1871. Junior subjective synonym.
Asiocolias Korb, 2005. Type species: Colias christophi Grum-Grshimailo, 1885. Junior subjective synonym.
Mesocolias Petersen, 1963. Type species: Colias vauthierii Guérin-Méneville, 1830. Junior subjective synonym.
Palaeocolias Berger, 1986. Type species: Colias ponteni Wallengren, 1860. Junior subjective synonym of Colias Fabricius, 1807 and Protocolias Petersen, 1963.
Neocolias Berger, 1986. Type species: Papilio erate Esper, [1805]. Junior subjective synonym.
Eucolias Berger,1986. Type species: Papilio palaeno Linnaeus, 1760. Junior subjective synonym.
Similicolias Berger, 1986. Type species: Papilio lesbia Fabricius, 1775. Junior subjective synonym.
Paracolias Berger, 1986. Type species: Colias dimera Doubleday, 1847. Junior subjective synonym.

Habit:

C. hyale hyale : Lithuania C. tyche : Russia, Sayan region C. marcopolo : Eastern Pamir C. berylla : Thibet
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C. nina : Thibet C. crocea : Crimea C. chrysoptera : Eastern Pamir C. eogene : Pamir
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C. christophi : Tajikistan C. tamerlana : Mongolia C. hyale hyale : Lithuania C. poliographus : Russia, Chukotka
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C. chrysoptera : Tajikistan C. hecla : Sweden C. crocea : Crimea C. eogene : Pamir
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Forewing upperside whitish yellow, yellow, orange to red-brown, sometimes more or less greyish suffused; outer margin, especially on forewing, more or less broad brown, grey or blackish, often, especially in females with light spots of ground colour between veins; discoidal spot of forewing dark grey to dark brown, on hindwing yellow to orange; underside of forewing similar to upperside, hindwing mostly yellowish, greenish, orange or greyish suffused, with yellow to orange discoidal spot. normally more colourful than , intraspecific variability often pronounced.

Distribution:

Species of Colias are distributed on all continents except for Australia. Most species occur in temperate Eurasia, only a few in Africa, North and South America. They reach the subarctic Zone, but are absent from tropical climates. Vertically, members of the genus are found from the lowlands up to the highest mountain ranges in central Asia.

Biology:

Colias species inhabit open landscapes. They are absent from woodlands. Many species inhabit rocky mountain slopes or steppes, several are found also in open tundra or alpine dwarfshrub vegetation. Depending on geographical latitude and altitude, 1-4 generations per year are found normally. Nectaring plants are mainly of the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Fabaceae, but also Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Valerianaceae, Apocynaceae, Caryophyllaceae or Hypericaceae have been confirmed, at least for European species (Kurz & Kurz 2019).

Stages in development:

Egg. The egg is of the upright type, much higher than wide. They are narrowed at the base and tapering towards the apex, with distinct reticulate structure. The eggs are laid singly on the foodplants, which are often from the Fabaceae Family. Most species are oligophagous to present knowledge.

Larva. Larvae are cylindrical, without striking morphological features and often more or less green ground colour.

Pupa. Pupae are tapering to both ends.

Anatomy:

Genitalia. "More than twice as tall as wide, tegumen with small uncus anticus; valve tall, firmly attached above to margin of tegumen; furca prominent, composed of two wide lateral plates; penis strongly curved with large trochanter in all species. Specific characters are poorly defined and the genitalia are of little value in identification." (Higgins 1975).

Diagnosis:

Zerene from America is distinguished from Colias by the pointed apex and by the dark outer margin of the forewing, which is inwardly not evenly curved, but widened in a zic-zac-line along apex and inner margin; a similar appearance of the inner border is found also in most Eurema, but these lack, like most other Coliadinae except Catopsilia, the dark discoidal spot on the forewing. The latter species are on average larger than Colias and the dark outer margin on the forewing is mostly widened inwardly from apex.

Worth knowing:

Sources:

Grieshuber, J. & G. Lamas 2007. A Synonymic List of the Genus Colias FABRICIUS, 1807 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 97: 131-171.
Higgins, L. 1975. The Classification of European Butterflies, Collins, London.

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2019.06.28
Kurz Michael: 2019.07.02
Kurz Michael: 2019.07.04
not reviewed

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