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Eriocrania (Eriocrania) cicatricella (Zetterstedt, 1839)

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Adela cicatricella Zetterstedt, 1839: 1008.
Type locality: northern Sweden, Wittangi (=Vittangi)
Type: 2 Syntypes: [Sweden], Wittangi 14.-16.Jun. 1821, in coll. Museum of Zoology, Lund University

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
Tinea purpurella Haworth, 1828: 571: Type locality: Great Britain, near London. Primary homonym of Tinea purpurella Coquebert de Montbret, 1801 (= Aethes rutilana Hübner, [1817])
Eriocrania haworthi Bradley, 1966: 214: Replacement name for Tinea purpurella Haworth, 1828. Junior subjective synonym.

Habit:

: Eastern Tyrol, Lengberg, 850 m, 2004.04.16, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz : Eastern Tyrol, Lengberg, 850 m, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz : Salzburg, Gois, Goiser Moos, 436m, 2009.04.13, leg. et coll. Christof Zeller : Upper Austria, Mühlviertel, Kasten, 705m, 2007.04.08, leg. et coll. Christof Zeller
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: © Zeller Christof
Detailed view
Picture from: © Zeller Christof
Detailed view

Description of adults: Examined: 6 . Forewing length: 4.0 - 4.9 mm. Head black-brown; vestiture of hair-like scales on the head sparse, distant, dark brown-grey; eyes small, 0.2 - 0.25 mm in diameter; antennae slightly less than 1/2 of forewing length, simple, filiform, dark brown, purple shining; thorax with adpressed scales dorsally at the anterior margin only, golden shining with single purple scales; tegulae also golden with single purple scales; forewings elongate, irregularly golden to variable extend, with purple to purple-violet spots; these spots with additional, single, blue scales in varying occurence; slightly basally of the tornus a mostly conspicious, irregular, golden spot, often reaching across half of the wing width, sometimes centered silvery; fringe grey, golden shining; hindwings with elongate, moderately broad scales, covering the wing membrane basally of the discus to a large extend, but not completely; hindwings bronzy golden shining, apically tinged purple; fringe grey, golden shining; legs black-brown, golden shining; foretibia without epiphysis; midtibia at its distal end, hindtibia at about 2/3 of the tibial length and at its distal end with a pair of spurs each; abdomen black-brown, scarsely scaled golden.

Remarks: The variability in forewing length is quite large, with an expansion up to 13 mm. The extend of golden and purple markings may each exceed 50% of the forewing area.

Distribution:

Following Karsholt (2004), E. cicatricella is distributed in Italy, from France and the Bristish Isles throughout central Europe to Scandinavia, the Baltic states and the northern part of European Russia. Furthermore, it has been recorded from Romania and the southern part of European Russia too. Dubatolov (2012) mentions it also from the west Siberian plain, but from the eastern Palaearctic region as well as from Japan, the species seems to be absent (anonymous 2012, Dubatolov 2012).

Biology:

Single specimens have been found on a sunny slope on a wood edge, the wood consisting of spruce and birch (H. Deutsch, pers. comm.). Following Heath (1983), the animals are on the wing in April and fly around birch in full sunshine.

Stages in development:

Egg. The eggs are laid on buds of birch (Betula sp.).

Larva. The larva lives in a blotch-like mine in leaves of birch in May (Heath 1983). Usually 2-6 larvae feed in one blotch. The first instar is greenish-white with the head watery-white, with just a tinge of brown around the mouth. In subsequent moults, litte changes take place and even the last instar is of a watery-white colour, with the head concolorous, the eye-spots black and the mouth pale brown. Since the larvae do not completely remove the parenchyma when feeding, it is very difficult to see them in their mine, even when full grown. Besides the protuberance on segment V, the larva is furnished with small projections on each of the other abdominal segments, except XII and XIII, which gives it a prickly appearance (Wood 1890).

Pupa. The pupa rests in the ground in a tough, silken cocoon (Heath 1983).

Anatomy:

abdomen, prep.-no. 928, M. Kurz: Eastern Tyrol, Drau valley, near Lienz, Lengberg, 800-850 m, 2005.04.04, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz -genitalia, prep.-no. 928, M. Kurz: Eastern Tyrol, Drau valley, near Lienz, Lengberg, 800-850 m, 2005.04.04, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz -genitalia, prep.-no. 928, M. Kurz, aedeagus and parameres: Eastern Tyrol, Drau valley, near Lienz, Lengberg, 800-850 m, 2005.04.04, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz abdomen, prep.-no. 1009, M. Kurz: Austria, Salzburg, Gois, Goiser Moos, 436m, 2007.04.11, leg. et coll. Christof Zeller
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 
-genitalia, prep.-no. 1009, M. Kurz: Austria, Salzburg, Gois, Goiser Moos, 436m, 2007.04.11, leg. et coll. Christof Zeller abdomen, prep.-no. 928, M. Kurz, sensory organs: Eastern Tyrol, Drau valley, near Lienz, Lengberg, 800-850 m, 2005.04.04, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz abdomen, prep.-no. 1009, M. Kurz, sensory organs: Austria, Salzburg, Gois, Goiser Moos, 436m, 2007.04.11, leg. et coll. Christof Zeller  
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 

Pregenital abdomen. Sternite V on both sides with a small, oval area (sensorium); females with additional spots also on both sides of sternite IV, but these spots larger, quadrangulate and with quite irregular margins.

genitalia. Uncus with two big, rounded lobes, their posterior tips rounded, with spinoid setae; valves much reduced, bean-like, on the inner surface, along the dorsal margin, with several rows of inwardly directed short spinoid setae; anellus in the form of an "M"; at distal margin of vinculum, between valves, a distinctly sclerotized ridge; branches of saccus much shorter than length of ventral margin of vinculum, proximally rounded; aedeagus distinctly longer than ventral margin of vinculum, slender; paramere slender too, of the same length as aedeagus, with a rounded tip posteriorly.

genitalia. Apophyses anteriores and posteriores moderately long, reaching segment V and VI, respectively; internal sclerite very slender, bifurcate, medially with a third branch; inner genital organs not sclerotized.

Diagnosis:

E. cicatricella : Eastern Tyrol, Lengberg, 850 m, 2004.04.16, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz E. chrysolepidella : Salzburg, Flachgau, Bergheim, Plainberg, 1965.04.04. leg. Fritz Mairhuber, coll. Haus der Natur E. cicatricella -genitalia, prep.-no. 928, M. Kurz: Eastern Tyrol, Drau valley, near Lienz, Lengberg, 800-850 m, 2005.04.04, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz E. chrysolepidella -genitalia, prep.-no. 474, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Flachgau, Bergheim, Plainberg, 1965.04.04, leg. Fritz Mairhuber, coll. Michael Kurz
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
   
E. cicatricella -genitalia, prep.-no. 1009, M. Kurz: Austria, Salzburg, Gois, Goiser Moos, 436m, 2007.04.11, leg. et coll. Christof Zeller E. chrysolepidella -genitalia, prep.-no. 481, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Flachgau, Kasern, 1968.04.17, leg. Fritz Mairhuber, coll. Haus der Natur, Salzburg    
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
   

Extenernally very similar to E. cicatricella is Eriocrania chrysolepidella (Zeller, 1851), which can be distinguished best by examination of the male and female genitalia, but also by its longer antennae. In the -genitalia, both lobes of the uncus are comparatively short and broad in E. cicatricella, whereas in E. chrysolepidella, they are more elongate and narrower. In the -genitalia, the double internal, bifurcate sclerite is very big and conspicious in E. chrysolepidella, in E. cicatricella however, it is distinctly smaller.

Worth knowing:

Sources:

anonymous 2012. An Identification Guide of Japanese Moths Compiled by Everyone. URL: http://www.jpmoth.org [online 04 November 2012].
Dubatolov, V. V. 2012. Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum: Eriocraniidae. http://szmn.sbras.ru/Lepidop/Eriocran.htm [online 04 November 2012].
Heath, J. 1983. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol.I: Micropterigidae – Heliozelidae. – Harley Books, Martins, Great Horkesley, Colchester, Essex.
Karsholt, O. 2004. Families Acanthopteroctetidae, Axiidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Drepanidae, Eriocottidae, Eriocraniidae, Gelechiidae, Heterogynidae, Limacodidae, Lypusidae, Micropterigidae, Roeslerstammiidae, Somabrachyidae, Uraniidae. In: Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken (eds.). Lepidoptera, Moths. – Fauna Europaea version 1.1, http://www.faunaeur.org [online 22 April 2008].
Wood, J. H. 1890. Micropteryx larvae. Entomologist´s monthly Magazine, 26: 1-6.
Zetterstedt, J. W. 1839. Insecta Lapponica. Sectio Quarta: [869/870]-1039/1140. Lipsiae.

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2009.06.05
Kurz Michael: 2012.10.31
Kurz Michael: 2012.11.03
Kurz Michael: 2012.11.04
Kurz Michael: 2012.11.11
Kurz Michael: 2012.11.26
Kurz Michael: 2013.01.16
Kurz Michael: 2013.01.20
Kurz Michael: 2017.03.20
Kurz Michael: 2017.03.22
Document reviewed by:
not reviewed: 2017.03.22
Document released by:
Kurz Michael: 2017.03.22

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