N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Eriocrania (Eriocrania) sangii (Wood, 1891)

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Micropteryx sangii Wood, 1891: 100.
Type locality: England, Hereford, Tarrington
Type: ?, probably in coll. NHM, London

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
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Habit:

 
: Salzburg, Untersberg area, Großgmain, Wartberg, 1974.03.23, leg. Fritz Mairhuber, coll. Michael Kurz : Eastern Tyrol, Lengberg, 850 m, 2004.04.03, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz : Eastern Tyrol, Lengberg, 850 m, 2004.04.03, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz  
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 

Description of adults: Examined: 2 , 2 . Forewing length: 5.7 - 5.8 mm, 4.4 - 5.4 mm. Head black-brown; vestiture of hair-like scales on the head sparse, distant, brown, mixed light grey; maxillary palpi with adpressed scales, brownish-grey; eyes small, about 0.3 mm in diameter (), respectively, 0.2 mm (); antennae filiform, in both sexes about 0.6 times the forewing length, brown, bronzy golden shining; thorax dorsally with scales only at the anterior margin, golden like the tegulae, mixed purple and blue; forewings elongate, of violet ground colour with numerous interspersed, single, blue scales and, especially in the distal part, with numerous, irregular, small golden spots, forming an irregular reticulate pattern; basad of the tornus a small to fascia-like golden spot at the inner margin, reaching sometimes across half of the wing width; fringe grey, golden shining; hindwings, except apically, with very narrow scales, leaving most of the wing membrane uncovered; hindwings beige, with nacre-like, golden tinge, apically bronzy golden to intensively purple; fringe light brown-grey, golden shining; legs brown, golden shining; foretibia without epiphysis; midtibia with a spur at the distal end; hindtibia with a pair of spurs at about 2/3 to nearly 3/4 of the tibial length and at the distal end each.

Distribution:

Following Karsholt & Nieukerken (2013), the species has been recorded from France and the British Isles throughout central Europe to Scandinavia and European Russia, as well as from Romania. E. sangii is also known from the west Siberian plain and the Amur and Primorye region in Russia (Dubatolov 2012), but does not reach Japan (anonymous 2012). Vertically, records are available from near sea-level to 1150 m a.s.l. (Kurz & Kurz 2015).

Biology:

The species inhabits populations of birch (Betula sp.), mixed birch forests and wood edges. The animals are on the wing in full sunshine from late March to April, wheras larvae can be found till May (Kurz & Kurz 2015).

Stages in development:

     
Mine on Betula pendula: Salzburg, Osterhorn group, Elsbethen, way from Gfalls to the Fageralm, 2014.05.10, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz      
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
     

Morphology of preimaginal stages (Heath 1983).

Egg. The egg is laid in a leaf bud of birch (Betula sp.).

Larva. The larva is grey, which distinguishes it from all other birch-feeding Eriocrania-species. It feeds from late March till May in a blotch mine in the leaf.

Pupa. The pupa rests in a tough silken cocoon in the soil.

Anatomy:

abdomen, prep.-no. 777, M. Kurz: Eastern Tyrol, Drau valley, Lengberg, 800 - 900 m, 2004.04.03, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz -genitalia, prep.-no. 777, M. Kurz: Eastern Tyrol, Drau valley, Lengberg, 800 - 900 m, 2004.04.03, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz -genitalia, prep.-no. 470, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Untersberg area, Großgmain, Wartberg, 1974.03.23, leg. Fritz Mairhuber, coll. Michael Kurz abdomen, prep.-no. 930, M. Kurz: Eastern Tyrol, Dölsach, Görtschacher Berg, 850-900 m, 2007.04.14, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 
-genitalia, prep.-no. 930, M. Kurz: Eastern Tyrol, Dölsach, Görtschacher Berg, 850-900 m, 2007.04.14, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz Sensorium of , an area devoid of scales on the venter of the abdomen: Eastern Tyrol, Lengberg, 850 m, 2004.04.03, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz abdomen, prep.-no. 930, M. Kurz, sensorium: Eastern Tyrol, Dölsach, Görtschacher Berg, 850-900 m, 2007.04.14, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz  
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 

Pregenital abdomen. Sternite V on both sides with a small, nearly round area (sensorium); females with additional spots also on both sides of sternite IV, these spots nearly twice as large, oval.

genitalia. Uncus with two big, slipper-like lobes, their posterior pouches at inner surface with very short spinoid setae; valves very much reduced, of oval shape, at inner surface with several rows of short spinoid setae too; branches of sacchus of equal length than ventral margin of vinculum, slender, with rounded tips; aedeagus much longer than ventral margin of vinculum, paramere slightly shorter than aedeagus, tapered, pointed at apex.

genitalia. Apophyses anteriores and posteriores very long, reaching anteriorly to segment V and IV, respectively; internal sclerite with three branches, two of them long, medially bent nearly at right angle, the third much smaller, in opposite direction, bent in a semi-circle; inner genital organs not sclerotized.

Diagnosis:

E. sangii : Eastern Tyrol, Lengberg, 850 m, 2004.04.03, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz E. semipurpurella : Salzburg, Untersberg area, Großgmain, Wartberg, 1974.04.01, leg. Fritz Mairhuber, coll. Haus der Natur Eriocrania species : Eastern Tyrol, Drau valley, near Lienz, Lengberg, 800-850 m, 2007.04.15, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz E. sangii -genitalia, prep.-no. 470, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Untersberg area, Großgmain, Wartberg, 1974.03.23, leg. Fritz Mairhuber, coll. Michael Kurz
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Zeller Christof
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
E. semipurpurella -genitalia, prep.-no. 473, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Flachgau, Eugendorf, Unzing, Wörlemoos, 1990.03.21, leg et. coll. Michael Kurz Tip of paramere: above: E. semipupurella, below: E. sangii E. sangii -genitalia, prep.-no. 930, M. Kurz: Eastern Tyrol, Dölsach, Görtschacher Berg, 850-900 m, 2007.04.14, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz E. semipurpurella -genitalia, prep.-no. 477, M. Kurz: Salzburg, Untersberg area, Großgmain, Wartberg, 1974.04.01, leg. Fritz Mairhuber, coll. Haus der Natur, Salzburg
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
     
Eriocrania sp. -genitalia, prep.-no. 929, M. Kurz: Eastern Tyrol, Drau valley, near Lienz, Lengberg, 800-850 m, 2007.04.15, leg. Helmut Deutsch, coll. Michael Kurz      
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
     

The nearly hair-like scales on the hindwing, which leave most of the wing membrane uncovered, readily distinguish E. sangii from most other purple-violet species of the genus. Eriocrania semipurpurella (Stephens, 1835), which is nearly indistinguishable externally, normally has a less prominent spot at the inner margin basad of the tornus. In the male genitalia, the paramere in E. semipurpurella is distinctly dentated, whereas in E. sangii this dentation is missing. The internal abdominal sclerite of the females of E. semipurpurella has two branches only, whereas in E. sangii it has three. Morphological differences indicate also another, hitherto undescribed species from Europe, which shows a different internal abdominal sclerite in the females too.

Worth knowing:

Sources:

anonymous 2012. An Identification Guide of Japanese Moths Compiled by Everyone. URL: http://www.jpmoth.org [online 04 November 2012].
Dubatolov, V. V. 2012. Collection of Siberian Zoological Museum: Eriocraniidae. http://szmn.sbras.ru/Lepidop/Eriocran.htm [online 04 November 2012].
Heath, J. 1983. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol.I: Micropterigidae – Heliozelidae. – Harley Books, Martins, Great Horkesley, Colchester, Essex.
Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken 2013. Eriocraniidae. In - Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken (eds.). Lepidoptera, Moths. – Fauna Europaea version 2.6.2, http://fauna.naturkundemuseum-berlin.de/ [online 30 November 2015].
Kurz, M. A. & M. E. Kurz 2000–2015. Naturkundliches Informationssystem. – URL: http://www.nkis.info [online 30 November 2015].
Wood, J. H. 1891. Micropteryx sangii; a new species from birch. The Entomologist´s Monthly Magazine, Second Series 2 27: 100-101.

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2009.06.08
Kurz Michael: 2012.10.31
Kurz Michael: 2012.11.03
Kurz Michael: 2012.11.04
Kurz Michael: 2012.11.11
Kurz Michael: 2012.11.26
Kurz Michael: 2015.10.19
Kurz Michael: 2015.11.30
Kurz Michael: 2015.12.16
Document reviewed by:
not reviewed: 2015.12.16
Document released by:
Kurz Michael: 2015.12.16

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