N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Lycaena dispar rutilus (Werneburg, 1864)

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

[Papilio] rutilus Werneburg, 1864: 391.
Type locality: Germany, Berlin
Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
albidoflava Bayer, 1924
autumnalis Krähe, 1912: 106
burdigalensis Lucas, 1913: 282
carueli Le Moult, 1945:55
centralitaliae Verity, 1943: 61
continentalis Courvoisier, 1912: 65
gronieri Bernardi, 1963: 53
hippothoe Ochsenheimer, 1808: 84
hungarica Szabó, 1956:302
postcarueli Le Moult, 1945: 57
verityi Le Moult, 1945: 57
vernalis Hormuzaki, 1893: 58.

Large Copper
Le Cuivré des Marais
Großer Feuerfalter

Habit:

: Lithuania : Lithuania : Lithuania : Lithuania
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: Lithuania : Lithuania : Lithuania : Crimea
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Distribution:

Subspecies rutilus is distributed very locally in scattered populations in France, central and eastern Europe, on the Balkan peninsula as far south as central Greece and European Turkey, as well as in the northern part of Italy. In former days it also occured near Rome. The vertical distribution reaches from sea level to only 1000 m a.s.l. (Tolman & Lewington 1998). In Asia, the taxon reaches the Black Sea, the Caucasus and in central Asia the Tian Shan mountains (Bozano & Weidenhoffer 2001).

Biology:

Biotope: Austria, Burgenland, Neusiedlersee, Oggauer Heide, 2000.05.30 Burgenland, Neusiedlersee, near Winden, Ludl-Loch, 2003.08.13 : Austria, Burgenland, Neusiedlersee, Oggauer Heide, 2000.05.30 : Austria, Burgenland, Neusiedlersee, Oggauer Heide, 2000.05.30
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
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: Austria, Burgenland, Neusiedlersee, Oggauer Heide, 2000.05.30 underside: Austria, Burgenland, Neusiedlersee, Oggauer Heide, 2000.05.30 : Styria, near Graz, Enzelsdorf : Styria, near Graz, Enzelsdorf
Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Picture from: Kurz Michael
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Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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Styria, near Graz, Gnaning, Enzelsdorferstraße, 1999.06.03 Styria, near Graz, Gnaning, Enzelsdorferstraße, 1999.06.13 Styria, near Graz, Dillach Graben, 1999.08.04 Styria, near Graz, Gnaning, Enzelsdorferstraße, 1999.08.08
Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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Styria, near Graz, Gnaning, Enzelsdorferstraße, 1999.08.08 Styria, near Graz, Kalsdorf, 1992.06.01 1992.06.01 Styria, near Graz, Gnaning, Enzelsdorferstraße, 2000.05.28
Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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Styria, near Graz, Enzelsdorf, 2002.07.19 Styria, near Graz, Enzelsdorf, 2002.07.19 Burgenland, 2004.06.24 Poland, Bialystok, Rybniki, 2008.07.03
Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
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The imagines inhabit wet meadows and fens and are heavily endangered by drainage of such biotopes. They can also be found on dry grassland and poor meadows, as well as in neighbourghing tall herb vegetation and along wood and shrub margins. Subspecies rutilus is mostly on the wing in two generations per year, with imagines in May, June and July, August. In northern regions, there may occus only one generation, whereas in the south, a third generation can be found in September and October (Tolman & Lewington 1998, Kurz & Kurz 2016).

Stages in development:

Description of early stages following Forster & Wohlfahrt (1976) and Tolman & Lewington (1998):

Egg. The egg is laid singly or in small groups of 3-4 on the underside of leaves of the foodplant. They are quite flat with immerged mycropyle region. The upperside bears 7 broad incisions which run out star-like from the mycropyle.

Larva. The larva is green with pale yellow lateral stripes and bears numerous fine and short setae. The head is pale yellowish-brown. Foodplant of the larva are species of Rumex, i.e. Rumex hydrolapathum, Rumex crispus, Rumex obtusifolium and Rumex aquaticus. The larvae hibernate. In Greece, they probably fall into diapause from June to the next spring.

Pupa. The pupa is ash-grey and shows angulate brown spots.

Anatomy:

genitalia. valve narrow, somewhat constricted before the rounded apex, which bears small teeth-like spines; furca large, lateral lamellae narrow, pointed at the tip; aedeagus sinuate; dorsal cuneus present (Higgins 1975).

Diagnosis:

The first generation is smaller than ssp. batavus Oberthür in both sexes. On the hindwing underside, the ground colour is more yellowish, the submarginal band is lighter, narrower and mostly also somewhat shorter. The small black dots on the hindwing underside are also normally smaller (Bozano & Weidenhoffer 2001). Imagines of the second generation are even smaller (forewing length 16-17 mm), the show small black dots and the orange submarginal band on the hindwing underside is narrow and light (Tolman & Lewington 1998). Furthermore, there is some similarity to the sympatric Lycaena virgaureae (Linné, 1758), which, however, has a more yellowish hindwing underside with white postdiscal spots.

Genetics:

Chromosome number (haploid): unknown (Higgins, 1975)

Worth knowing:

Sources:

Bozano, G. C. & Z. Weidenhoffer 2001. Guide to the Butterflies of the Palaearctic Region. Lycaenidae I, Subfamily Lycaeninae. Omnesa Artes, Milano, 62 pp.
Forster W. & Th.A. Wohlfahrt 1976. Die Schmetterlinge Mitteleuropas, 2, 2. Auflage, Franckh´sche Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart
Higgins, L. 1975. The Classification of European Butterflies, Collins, London
Kurz, M. A. & M. E. Kurz 2000-2016. Naturkundliches Informationssystem. URL http://www.nkis.info [online 2016.10.09]
Tolman T. & R. Lewington 1998. Die Tagfalter Europas und Nordwestafrikas, übersetzt von M. Nuß, Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & Co., Stuttgart.
Werneburg, A. 1864. Beiträge zur Schmetterlingskunde. Kritische Bearbeitung der wichtigsten entomologischen Werke des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts bezüglich der darin abgehandelten europäischen Schmetterlinge 1: 391. Band 2: 9, 69, 91, 92, 158, 279, 298, 303.

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2009.06.27
Kurz Michael: 2011.11.15
Kurz Michael: 2014.07.17
Kurz Michael: 2016.06.30
Kurz Michael: 2016.07.28
Kurz Michael: 2016.10.10
Kurz Michael: 2016.10.13
Kurz Michael: 2016.11.24
not reviewed

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