N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Triodia sylvina (Linné, 1761)

(zoological nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Noctua sylvina Linnaeus, 1761: 306.
Type locality: Sweden, Holmiae
Type: Syntypes in coll. The Linnean Collections at The Linnean Society of London (pictures)

Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
Bombyx hamma [Denis and Schiffermüller], 1775. Type locality: Germany. Junior subjective synonym.
Hepialus angulatus Fabricius, 1781. Type locality: Germany. Junior subjective synonym.
Phalaena multicolor Fourcroy, 1785. Type locality: France. Junior subjective synonym.
Hegialus crux Fabricius, 1787 [sic]. Type locality: Denmark. Junior subjective synonym.
Noctua angulum de Villers, 1789. Unjustified emendation.
Noctua c-album de Villers, 1789. Type locality: Europe. Junior subjective synonym.
Schrank, 1801. Type locality: Germany. Junior subjective synonym.
Hepialus cruxatorHaworth, 1802. Unjustified emendation.
Hepialus angulator Haworth, 1802. Unjustified emendation.
Hepialus sylvinator Haworth, 1802.Unjustified emendation.
Hepialus pallidus Hormuzaki, 1894. Type locality: Russia. Junior subjective synonym.
Hepialus poecilus Hormuzaki, 1894. Type locality: Rumania. Junior subjective synonym.
Hepialus kruegeri Turati, 1909. Type locality: Italy. Junior subjective synonym.
Hepialus victoriae Petkoff, 1914. Type locality: Bulgaria. Junior subjective synonym.
Hepialus sylvinus f. brunnescens Lempke, 1938. Type locality: Netherlands. Infrasubspecific name.
Hepialus sylvinus f. pauper Lempke, 1938. Type locality: Netherlands. Infrasubspecific name.
Hepialus androgynus Agenjo, 1942. Type locality: Spain. Junior subjective synonym.
Hepialus pardoi Agenjo, 1942. Type locality: Spain. Junior subjective synonym.
Hepialus alfaroi Agenjo, 1942. Type locality: Spain. Junior subjective synonym.
Hepialus laincalvo Agenjo, 1942. Type locality: Spain. Junior subjective synonym.
Triodia sylvina f. nigrescens Lempke, 1961. Type locality: Netherlands. Infrasubspecific name.
Triodia sylvina f. obscura Lempke, 1961. Type locality: Netherlands. Infrasubspecific name.
Triodia sylvina f. pallida Lempke, 1961. Type locality: Netherlands. Infrasubspecific name.
Triodia sylvina f. reducta Lempke, 1961. Type locality: Netherlands. Infrasubspecific name.
silvyna auct. misspelling

Wood Swift, Orange Swift, Swift Moth, Wood Swift Moth
la Sylvine
Ampfer-Wurzelbohrer, Trockenkräuterrasen-Wurzelbohrer, Malvenwurzelspinner, Hopfenwurzelspinner

Habit:

 
: Salzburg, city of Salzburg, Taxham, 1972.08.16, coll. Haus der Natur : Carinthia, Obervellach, 1964.09.19, coll. Haus der Natur : Salzburg, city of Salzburg, Bachstraße, 1981.08.12, leg. et coll. Michael Kurz  
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 

Description of adults: Examined: 1 , 2 . Forewing length: 15.5 mm, 17.0-18.2 mm. Vestiture of hair-like scales on the head dense, in ochreous, in brown; palpi densely covered with hair-like scales, hair-like scales ventrally distant, in orange-brown, in brown; eyes semiglobular, black-brown; antennae very short, in hardly 3 mm long, anteriorly with short lamellae in right angle; in similar, but lamellae distinctly shorter; thorax and tegulae densely covered with hair-like scales, in ochreous to orange-brown, in brown to violet-brown; forewing in yellow- to orange-brown, in dark red-brown to violet-brown; a white, V-like marking across nearly the whole wing width, the bottom of the V inwardly often darkened; the distal arm of the V proximally margined light grey, the angle of the V lesser than 90°; in the middle of the wing, anteriorly a small, V-like marking, often indistinct, inwardly also margined ligth grey; along the costal margin 2-3 small, darker brown spots, often delicately margined in white; further whitish markings sometimes in submarginal area of forewing; fringe like ground colour; hindwing similar in colour to forewing, often slightly lighter or darker, in also more reddish, without any markings; fringe alike; underside similar in colour to upperside, without markings, heavily coppery shining; legs without spurs, densely covered with long hair-like scales, in ochreous to orange-brown, in ochreous to violet-brown; abdomen more scarsely scaled with short hair-like scales, brown.

Distribution:

T. sylvina is distributed throughout most of Europe to the Middle East (Karsholt & Nieukerken 2004, de Freina & Witt 1990). Records are missing from Ireland, Portugal, the Tyrrhenian Archipelago, Crete, Cyprus, Slovenia (!), Moldova and the north of European Russia (Karsholt & Nieukerken 2004). The vertical distribution reaches from sea level to at least 1900 m a.s.l., with most records below 700 m a.s.l. (Kurz et al. 2009).

Biology:

A probably freshly emerged : Salzburg, Flachgau, Eugendorf, Sophiensiedlung, 2003.08.28 the same animal: Salzburg, Flachgau, Eugendorf, Sophiensiedlung, 2003.08.28 Upper Austria, Mattsee, Lochen, Camping Stein, 2003.08.24 Salzburg, city of Salzburg, Gnigl, 2012.08.17
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 
Styria, Grazer Bucht, Grazer Feld, Enzelsdorf, 2000.08.19 Styria, Grazer Bucht, Grazer Feld, Enzelsdorf, 2001.08.21 Salzburg, city of Salzburg, Gnigl, 2014.08.09  
Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
Detailed view
Picture from: © Gillmann Johannes
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
 

The animals inhabit meadows and waysides, tall herb vegetation, edges of woodland, but also gardens and parks (Kurz et al. 2009). The males are on the wing only for a short time in the evening, spreading their flavour for attracting females (Forster & Wohlfahrt 1960). The flight period lasts from the end of July till September in one generation, although single individuals in collections are labelled also with May and June (Kurz et al. 2009). Maybe, these individuals are from rearing.

Stages in development:

Egg. The eggs are very small, roundish, somewhat flattened laterally. Immediately after oviposition, they are whitish yellow, the colour turning into shining black after some hours. The eggs, several hundreds per female, are spread during the flight.

Larva. Fullfed, the larva is between 25 and 30 mm long, whitish. The head is big, roundish and shining reddish brown. The thoracic plate is of similar colour. The mouthparts are black, the stigma brown. The larvae feet on the roots of various plants like Rumex-, Taraxacum-, and Daucus-ssp., but also on Pteridium aquilinum. Pupation takes place in the ground in a weak cocoon (Forster & Wohlfahrt 1960).

Pupa. The pupa is elongate, shining yellowish brown with numerous spikes on the surfaces. It is very mobile (Forster & Wohlfahrt 1960).

Anatomy:

   
-genitalia -genitalia    
Picture from: © Viette 1948, modified
Detailed view
Picture from: © Viette 1948, modified
Detailed view
   

Description of genitalia (Viette 1948):

genitalia. Dorsal appendages of the tegumen sickle-shaped, well sclerotized and relatively dark; ventral appendages fused in the middle and with the trulleum, forming a triangle-shaped, elongate plate, tapering to a sharp tip; lateral parts of the tegumen forming a horizontal band-like structure, being only weakly sclerotized; trulleum very short, big and at the end fused with the ventral appendages of the tegumen; juxta very big, dorsally rounded; valves of almost dumbbell-like shape, the round posterior part densely covered with bristle-like setae; vinculum well developed, more or less slit posteriorly; saccus short.

genitalia. Sternite IX split into three plates, two bigger ones laterally and a smaller one medially, the latter covered with bristle-like setae; tergite IX forming a bow-like structure, which is covered with bristle-like setae; subanal plate relatively big, dentated.

Diagnosis:

T. sylvina : Austria, city of Salzburg, Taxham, 1972.08.16 T. amasina : Greece, Naussa, 1995.09.13 T. adriatica : Greece, Peloponnesos, Tolon, 1983.10 K. lupulinus : Sachsen-Anhalt, near Leipzig, Querfurt, 1968.06.04
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view

In central Europe, the species is well characterized and normally easily recognized. Two similar species are known from the Balcans, Triodia amasina (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851) and Triodia adriatica (Osthelder, 1931) respectively. The white fasciae on the forewing upperside are quite distinct in T. sylvina, the posterior one nearly reaching the apex. Both fasciae nearly meet each other at the inner margin almost rectangularly. In T. amasina, these fasciae are far apart from each other at the inner margin, enclosing a distinctly sharper angle. T. adriatica has three indistinct, broad, parallel, whitish fascia on the forewing upperside. Sometimes, Korscheltellus lupulinus (Linné, 1758) also may be quite similar, but normally the white fasciae are much more distinct, the angle at the inner margin between them being distinctly greater than 90°. The antennae of T. sylvina bear cross lamellae, which are missing in K. lupulinus. Normally, the latter species also flies much earlier (May, June) than T. sylvina.

Worth knowing:

Sources:

de Freina, J. und T. Witt 1990. Die Bombyces und Sphinges der Westpaläarktis (Insecta, Lepidoptera), 2, Edition Forschung & Wissenschaft Verlag GmbH, München
Forster W. & Th. A. Wohlfahrt 1960. Die Schmetterlinge Mitteleuropas, 3, Bombyces & Sphinges, Franckh´sche Verlagshandlung, Stuttgart
Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken 2004. Hepialidae. In - Karsholt, O. & E. J. van Nieukerken (eds.). Lepidoptera, Moths. – Fauna Europaea version 1.1, http://www.faunaeur.org [online 02 July 2009].
Kurz, M. A., M. E. Kurz & H. C. Zeller-Lukashort 2000–2009. Naturkundliches Informationssystem. – URL: http://www.nkis.info [visited on July 02, 2009].
Linnaeus, C. 1761. Fauna Suecica (2nd Edition). – Stockholm. 578 pp.
Viette, P. 1948. Lépidoptères homoneures; in: Faune de France 49, Paris

Publication data:

history:
Kurz Michael: 2009.07.06
Kurz Michael: 2012.02.04
Kurz Michael: 2012.03.28
Kurz Michael: 2014.02.16
Kurz Michael: 2015.03.02
Kurz Michael: 2017.03.01
Kurz Michael: 2017.07.13
not reviewed

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