N A T U R K U N D L I C H E S   I N F O R M A T I O N S S Y S T E M

Abies alba Miller, 1768

(botanical nomenclature: valid name, available)

General information:

Abies alba Miller, 1768: 6.
Type locality: Germany
Synonyms, misspellings, wrong determinations, etc.:
Synonyms following the Plant List (2020):

Abies abies Rusby [Invalid] Synonym.
Abies alba subsp. apennina Brullo, Scelsi & Spamp. Synonym.
Abies alba var. brevifolia Mattf. Synonym.
Abies alba f. columnaris (Carrière) Rehder Synonym.
Abies alba var. columnaris (Carrière) C.K.Schneid. Synonym.
Abies alba var. compacta (Parsons) Rehder Synonym.
Abies alba f. compacta (Parsons) Rehder Synonym.
i>Abies alba var. glauca Gordon Synonym.
Abies alba subsp. pardei (Gaussen) Silba Synonym.
Abies alba var. pardei (Gaussen) Silba Synonym.
Abies alba f. pendula (Carrière) Rehder Synonym.
Abies alba var. podolica R.I.Schröd. Synonym.
Abies alba f. pyramidalis (Carrière) Voss Synonym.
Abies argentea Chambray Synonym.
Abies baldensis (Zuccagni) Zucc. ex Nyman Synonym.
Abies candicans Fisch. ex Endl. Synonym.
Abies chlorocarpa Purk. ex Nyman Synonym.
Abies duplex Hormuz. ex Beissn. Synonym.
Abies excelsa Link [Illegitimate] Synonym.
Abies metensis Gordon Synonym.
Abies miniata Knight ex Gordon Synonym.
Abies minor Gilib. Synonym.
Abies nobilis A.Dietr. Synonym.
Abies pardei Gaussen Synonym.
Abies pectinata (Lam.) Lam. & DC. [Illegitimate] Synonym.
Abies pectinata var. columnaris Carrière Synonym.
Abies pectinata var. pendula Carrière Synonym.
Abies pectinata f. pendula (Carrière) Conw. Synonym.
Abies pectinata var. pendula-gracilis Sénécl. Synonym.
Abies pectinata var. pyramidalis Carrière Synonym.
Abies picea (L.) Lindl. [Illegitimate] Synonym.
Abies rinzii K.Koch Synonym.
Abies taxifolia Duhamel Synonym.
Abies taxifolia Desf. Synonym.
Abies taxifolia Raf. Synonym.
Abies tenuirifolia Beissn. Synonym.
Abies vulgaris Poir. Synonym.
Peuce abies Rich. Synonym.
Picea excelsa Wender. [Illegitimate] Synonym.
Picea kukunaria Wender. Synonym.
Picea metensis Gordon Synonym.
Picea pectinata (Lam.) Loudon Synonym.
Picea pectinata var. pendula (Carrière) Godefroy ex Gordon Synonym.
Picea pyramidalis Gordon Synonym.
Picea rinzi Gordon Synonym.
Picea tenuifolia Beissn. Synonym.
Pinus abies Du Roi [Illegitimate] Synonym.
Pinus abies var. pectinata (Lam.) Christ Synonym.
Pinus baldensis Zuccagni Synonym.
Pinus heterophylla K.Koch Synonym.
Pinus lucida Salisb. Synonym.
Pinus pectinata Lam. Synonym.
Pinus picea L. Synonym.
Pinus picea f. pendula (Carrière) Voss Synonym.
Pinus picea f. pyramidalis (Carrière) Voss Synonym.

Fir, silver fir
Sapin argenté
Tanne, Weißtanne
Abete bianco
Abeto blanco


coll. Neuchâtel Herbarium      
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Neuchâtel Herbarium (CC-BY-SA-3.0)
Detailed view


The silver fir is distributed from the Pyrenees and the Alps to the central Balkans. It has been cultivated to a small extend also in other European regions, in North America, the Himalajas, Japan and New Zealand (GBIF 2020). In central Europe, vertical records have been documented from about 300 to 1700 m a.sl. (Kurz & Kurz 2020).


Forest with beech, spruce and silver fir: Poland, Silesian Beskids Poland, Silesian Beskids Salzburg, Flachgau, Elsbethen, way to the Fageralm, 2004.05.20  
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Crusier (CC-BY-SA-3.0)
Detailed view
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Crusier (CC-BY-SA-3.0)
Detailed view
Picture from: Kurz Michael
Detailed view

Stages in development:

Cone and seeds: France, Toulouse, Campus Insa Seedling: Romania, Fagaras mountains unripe cones ripe cones: Poland, Pieniny
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Roger Culos (CC-BY-SA-3.0)
Detailed view
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Saturnian (CC-BY-SA-3.0)
Detailed view
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Jerzy Opio³a (CC-BY-SA-3.0)
Detailed view
Picture from: wikimedia commons: Jerzy Opiola (CC-BY-SA-4.0)
Detailed view

Worth knowing:


GBIF 2020. Biodiversity occurrence data accessed through GBIF Data Portal, URL: http://www.gbif.net [online 2020.07.17].
Kurz, M. A. & M. E. Kurz 2000–2020. Naturkundliches Informationssystem. – URL: http://www.nkis.info [online 2020.07.17].
Miller, P. 1768. The gardeners dictionary, ed. 8, London.
The Plant List 2013. A working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. - URL: http://www.theplantlist.org/ [online 2020.07.17].

Publication data:

Kurz Michael: 2005.11.29
Kurz Michael: 2020.07.17
Kurz Michael: 2020.07.20
not reviewed